||1) Reproduction not involving the exchange of genetic matererial, amictic, individuals derived from a single parent (Barnes et al., 1993).
2) Reproduction not involving the fusion of gametes (Lincoln et al., 1998).
||An asexual processes occurring as a result of fragmentation, division or budding from the parent organism (see Lincoln et al., 1998). Development by somatic growth (see Bold, 1977).
||A form of asexual multiplication in which a new individual begins life as an outgrowth from the body of the parent. It may then separate to lead an independent existence or remain connected or otherwise associated to form a colonial organism (Barnes et al., 1993).
||A form of asexual multiplication involving division of the body into two or more parts each or all of which can grow into new individuals (Barnes et al., 1993).
||1) Reproduction via single cells or eggs that are derived by mitosis; amictic (Barnes et al., 1993).
2) Parthenogenesis in which meiosis is suppressed so that neither chromosome reduction nor corresponding phenomenon occurs (Lincoln et al., 1998).
||1) Reproduction involving the regular alternation of gamete formation by meiosis, and gamete fusion (karyogamy) to form a zygote (Lincoln et al.,1998).
2) Reproduction where recombination of genetic material, derived from more than one parent is possible (Barnes et al., 1993).
||Both male and female reproductive organs in a single individual (animals) or flower (plants) (Lincoln et al., 1998).
|Permanent (synchronous) hermaphrodite
||Capable of producing both ova and spermatozoa either at the same time (Barnes et al., 1993).
||Union of male and female gametes produced by the same individual (Lincoln et al., 1998).
||Incapable of self-fertilization, due to physical or temporal separation of gametes, and / or self-compatability genes.
||Obligate self-fertilization (Lincoln et al., 1998) in which haploid eggs or gametes are produced by meiosis but diploidy is restored without fertilization (but sometimes with insemination).
||Consecutive hermaphrodite (Lincoln et al., 1998) - in which one type of gamete (male or female) is produced before the other.
||Hermaphroditism in plants and animals where male gametes mature and are shed before female gametes mature (Holmes, 1979).
||Hermaphroditism in plants and animals where female gametes mature and are shed before male gametes mature (Holmes, 1979).
||Having separate sexes or genders (Barnes et al., 1993).
||Haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs
||Males develop from diploid fertilized eggs but subsequently eliminate orsilence the paternal genome
|Alternation of generations
||The alternation of generations, in the life cycle of an organism, that exhibit different modes of reproduction; typically sexual (diploid) and asexual (haploid) phases. Also termed metagenesis (Lincoln et al., 1998). (e.g. Daphnia, some rotifers).
||Reproduction via spores