BIOTIC Species Information for Umbonula littoralis
Researched byDr Keith Hiscock Data supplied byMarLIN
Refereed byDr Peter J. Hayward
Scientific nameUmbonula littoralis Common nameAn encrusting bryozoan
MCS CodeY349 Recent SynonymsNone

PhylumBryozoa Subphylum
Superclass ClassGymnolaemata
Subclass OrderCheilostomatida
SuborderAscophorina FamilyUmbonulidae
GenusUmbonula Specieslittoralis

Additional InformationNo text entered
Taxonomy References Hastings, 1944, Hayward & Ryland, 1979,
General Biology
Growth formCrustose hard
Feeding methodActive suspension feeder
Mobility/MovementPermanent attachment
Environmental positionEpifaunal
Typical food typesSuspended material HabitAttached
BioturbatorNot relevant FlexibilityNone (< 10 degrees)
FragilityFragile SizeVery small(<1cm)
Height Growth RateInsufficient information
Adult dispersal potentialNot researched DependencyIndependent
General Biology Additional InformationUmbonula littoralis is a hermaphrodite. The size range given above is for individual zooids.
Biology References Hastings, 1944, Hayward & Ryland, 1979,
Distribution and Habitat
Distribution in Britain & IrelandPresent all around the British Isles.
Global distributionPresent from Bergen, Norway south along the western Atlantic coast to at least the Channel Isles and western Brittany. Not present in the Mediterranean.
Biogeographic rangeNot researched Depth rangeIntertidal to 6 m
MigratoryNon-migratory / Resident   
Distribution Additional InformationNo text entered

Substratum preferencesBedrock
Large to very large boulders
Small boulders
Physiographic preferencesOpen coast
Strait / sound
Ria / Voe
Enclosed coast / Embayment
Biological zoneSublittoral Fringe
Upper Infralittoral
Wave exposureExtremely Exposed
Very Exposed
Moderately Exposed
Tidal stream strength/Water flowVery Strong (>6 kn)
Strong (3-6 kn)
Moderately Strong (1-3 kn)
Weak (<1 kn)
SalinityFull (30-40 psu)
Habitat Preferences Additional Information
Distribution References Hastings, 1944, Hayward & Ryland, 1979, NBN, 2002, Picton & Costello, 1998,
Reproduction/Life History
Reproductive typePermanent hermaphrodite
Developmental mechanismLecithotrophic
Reproductive SeasonJune to November Reproductive Location
Reproductive frequencyBiannual protracted Regeneration potential No
Life spanInsufficient information Age at reproductive maturityInsufficient information
Generation timeInsufficient information FecundityInsufficient information
Egg/propagule size Fertilization type
Larval/Juvenile dispersal potentialInsufficient information Larval settlement period
Duration of larval stageInsufficient information   
Reproduction Preferences Additional Information
  • The dispersal phase is probably brief and larvae probably do not travel far.
  • Embryos were recorded as present in the Plymouth area in June and August (Marine Biological Association, 1957), from October and November on the north-east coast of England (Hastings, 1944) and from September to February in Manx waters (Eggleston, 1969).
Reproduction References Hastings, 1944, MBA, 1957, Eggleston, 1972, Hayward & Ryland, 1979, Eggleston, 1969,
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