Banded chink shell (Lacuna vincta)

Distribution data supplied by the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS). To interrogate UK data visit the NBN Atlas.Map Help

Summary

Description

A common, small sea snail with a distinctly conical shape. Generally a pale horn-colour becoming purplish towards the apex. Brown bands on whorls quite characteristic but sometimes faint or absent. Up to 12 mm high and 5 mm wide.

Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland

Found on all British and Irish coasts.

Global distribution

Circumboreal extending south to Brittany.

Habitat

Commonly found near the low tide level or in shallow water on seaweed. Often common on Fucus serratus and dense red seaweed turf. Inhabits a wide variety of coastlines but requires the shelter of crevices or dense weed in more exposed areas.

Depth range

0-40

Identifying features

  • A conical shell with five or six smooth whorls and a pointed apex.
  • Umbilicus has a prominent groove or chink.
  • Foot has two short flat metapodial tentacles characteristic of the genus.
  • Typically pale horn-coloured with brown bands on the whorls.

Additional information

The taxonomy of the Gastropoda has been recently revised (see Ponder & Lindberg 1997, and Taylor 1996). Ponder & Lindberg (1997) suggest that Mesogastropoda should be included in a monophyletic clade, the Caenogastropoda.

Listed by

- none -

Biology review

Taxonomy

LevelScientific nameCommon name
PhylumMollusca
ClassGastropoda
OrderLittorinimorpha
FamilyLittorinidae
GenusLacuna
Authority(Montagu, 1803)
Recent SynonymsLacuna carinata (Montagu, 1803)

Biology

ParameterData
Typical abundanceModerate density
Male size range3-12 mm
Male size at maturity6 mm
Female size range6 mm
Female size at maturity
Growth formTurbinate
Growth rateData deficient
Body flexibility
MobilityCreeper
Characteristic feeding methodGrazer (fronds/blades)
Diet/food sourceHerbivore
Typically feeds ondetritus, periphytic microalgae, macroalgae epidermis.
SociabilitySolitary
Environmental positionEpifaunal
DependencyIndependent.
SupportsNone
Is the species harmful?No

Biology information

Lacuna is a northern genus and the British Isles are near the southern edge of the range of this species. Lacuna vincta is rare in France but in northeast England densities have been recorded at 300 per square metre. In eastern Canada over 1,500 have been recorded per square metre. Adults die after spawning and very few can be found on the shore after April ( in southern Britain). The population is at a maximum in July (in southern Britain). Immediately after metamorphosis, the young snail is about 0.55 mm high. The brown bands on the shell develop following settlement. There is a very slight but not conclusive sexual dimorphism with the females being slightly larger. As the snail eats, the radula becomes worn down. Teeth are replaced through new growth. The form of the teeth varies depending on what the snail typically feeds on. This is important for determining feeding effectiveness. Sharp teeth are used for rasping and eating macroalgae whereas broader blunter teeth are used for scraping microalgae from the surface of plants. They do not graze algal film on rocks like similar winkles.

Habitat preferences

ParameterData
Physiographic preferencesOpen coast, Sea loch or Sea lough, Ria or Voe, Estuary
Biological zone preferences
Substratum / habitat preferencesMacroalgae
Tidal strength preferencesModerately strong 1 to 3 knots (0.5-1.5 m/sec.), Very weak (negligible), Weak < 1 knot (<0.5 m/sec.)
Wave exposure preferencesExtremely sheltered, Moderately exposed, Sheltered, Very sheltered
Salinity preferencesFull (30-40 psu), Low (<18 psu), Reduced (18-30 psu), Variable (18-40 psu)
Depth range0-40
Other preferencesNo text entered
Migration PatternSeasonal (reproduction)

Habitat Information

The species is found on a wide variety of coasts round the British Isles. It occasionally settles from the plankton as high as the mid tide level but is more typically found much further down the shore. The larvae settle out on a variety of algal species. The preferred species in the British Isles include Fucus serratus, Laminaria spp. and on red algal turf, particularly Lomentaria articulata. Also sometimes found on Zostera spp. Lacuna vincta has been recorded in salinities as low as 12-13 psu. Larval settlement from the plankton may occur in water velocities of 2.2m/s. There is a possible inshore migration by subtidal individuals in spring for breeding. The species requires considerable shelter from wave action and water flow. It acquires this shelter by selecting suitable habitats Exposure to adversely strong water currents may result in lifting of the foot and production of long sticky mucus threads allowing passive drifting in the water column to disperse to better conditions.

Life history

Adult characteristics

ParameterData
Reproductive typeGonochoristic (dioecious)
Reproductive frequency Annual protracted
Fecundity (number of eggs)10,000-100,000
Generation time<1 year
Age at maturityInsufficient information
SeasonJanuary - December
Life span<1 year

Larval characteristics

ParameterData
Larval/propagule type-
Larval/juvenile development Planktotrophic
Duration of larval stage1-6 months
Larval dispersal potential Greater than 10 km
Larval settlement periodPeak May/June or September: See additional info.

Life history information

In the field the species survives for a year or less. Survival rates are very low. Only 2-5 percent of the population will reach maturity. An estimate of the number of eggs per female per season is 53,500. Each spawn mass contains 1,000 - 1,500 eggs. The egg mass has a definite ring doughnut shape and the colour of the mass varies with diet. Individual egg size is around 100 microns. Development inside the egg takes 2.5 to 3.5 weeks. Spawning occurs throughout the year but there is a distinct peak. In southern Britain this peak is in winter resulting in main larval settlement in late May / early June. Further north settlement peaks in September. Cold temperatures may delay oviposition. Settlement is probably induced by organic properties of substrata beneficial to the adult rather than the presence of or exudate from other individuals of the species.

Sensitivity reviewHow is sensitivity assessed?

Physical pressures

Use / to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Substratum loss [Show more]

Substratum loss

Benchmark. All of the substratum occupied by the species or biotope under consideration is removed. A single event is assumed for sensitivity assessment. Once the activity or event has stopped (or between regular events) suitable substratum remains or is deposited. Species or community recovery assumes that the substratum within the habitat preferences of the original species or community is present. Further details

Evidence

Lacuna vincta uses a variety of seaweed species as substrata. The snail population will be lost along with the weed substrata if removed. The annual life cycle, high fecundity and long planktonic larval stage means that successful recruitment from other populations is likely.
High High Moderate Low
Smothering [Show more]

Smothering

Benchmark. All of the population of a species or an area of a biotope is smothered by sediment to a depth of 5 cm above the substratum for one month. Impermeable materials, such as concrete, oil, or tar, are likely to have a greater effect. Further details.

Evidence

Lacuna vincta does not live on the seabed itself. It uses a variety of algal species as substrata. Smothering may affect populations that inhabit substrata close to the seabed such as Zostera spp., Fucus serratus or Rhodophycota. Populations on taller plants like Laminaria spp will be little affected by smothering. The annual life cycle, high fecundity and long planktonic larval stage means that successful recruitment from other populations is likely.
Intermediate High Low Low
Increase in suspended sediment [Show more]

Increase in suspended sediment

Benchmark. An arbitrary short-term, acute change in background suspended sediment concentration e.g., a change of 100 mg/l for one month. The resultant light attenuation effects are addressed under turbidity, and the effects of rapid settling out of suspended sediment are addressed under smothering. Further details

Evidence

Detritus forms one of the main food sources for this species so increased siltation may be beneficial. Increases in sediment deposition may also hinder locomotion. Once the increase in sedimentation has been removed then the ability to move freely should be restored and recovery should be immediate.
Low Immediate Not sensitive Low
Decrease in suspended sediment [Show more]

Decrease in suspended sediment

Benchmark. An arbitrary short-term, acute change in background suspended sediment concentration e.g., a change of 100 mg/l for one month. The resultant light attenuation effects are addressed under turbidity, and the effects of rapid settling out of suspended sediment are addressed under smothering. Further details

Evidence

No information
Desiccation [Show more]

Desiccation

  1. A normally subtidal, demersal or pelagic species including intertidal migratory or under-boulder species is continuously exposed to air and sunshine for one hour.
  2. A normally intertidal species or community is exposed to a change in desiccation equivalent to a change in position of one vertical biological zone on the shore, e.g., from upper eulittoral to the mid eulittoral or from sublittoral fringe to lower eulittoral for a period of one year. Further details.

Evidence

Lacuna vincta is only found low on the shore. No species of the genus can tolerate long periods of desiccation. The species has some ability to relocate through crawling. Alternatively, dispersal by mucus thread drifting may be used to move away from unfavourable conditions when the tide is in. The annual life cycle, high fecundity and long planktonic larval stage means that successful recruitment from other populations is likely.
Intermediate High Low Moderate
Increase in emergence regime [Show more]

Increase in emergence regime

Benchmark. A one hour change in the time covered or not covered by the sea for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

Lacuna vincta is only found low on the shore. No species of the genus can tolerate long periods of emergence. The species has some ability to relocate through crawling. Alternatively, dispersal by mucus thread drifting may be used to move away from unfavourable conditions when the tide is in. The annual life cycle, high fecundity and long planktonic larval stage means that successful recruitment from other populations is likely.
Intermediate High Low Moderate
Decrease in emergence regime [Show more]

Decrease in emergence regime

Benchmark. A one hour change in the time covered or not covered by the sea for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

No information
Increase in water flow rate [Show more]

Increase in water flow rate

A change of two categories in water flow rate (view glossary) for 1 year, for example, from moderately strong (1-3 knots) to very weak (negligible). Further details

Evidence

Increased water flow rates may cause the snail to be washed away or restrict the ability to move and feed. In areas of higher water flow rates, this species selects microhabitats that provide considerable shelter - the dense turf formed by some red algae for example, often in crevices etc. The annual life cycle, high fecundity and long planktonic larval stage means that successful recruitment from other populations is likely.
Intermediate High Low Moderate
Decrease in water flow rate [Show more]

Decrease in water flow rate

A change of two categories in water flow rate (view glossary) for 1 year, for example, from moderately strong (1-3 knots) to very weak (negligible). Further details

Evidence

No information
Increase in temperature [Show more]

Increase in temperature

  1. A short-term, acute change in temperature; e.g., a 5°C change in the temperature range for three consecutive days. This definition includes ‘short-term’ thermal discharges.
  2. A long-term, chronic change in temperature; e.g. a 2°C change in the temperature range for a year. This definition includes ‘long term’ thermal discharges.

For intertidal species or communities, the range of temperatures includes the air temperature regime for that species or community. Further details

Evidence

The British Isles are near the southern limit of the Lacuna vincta range. Long term increases in temperature may limit the survival of the snail, restricting subsequent distribution. Short term acute temperature increases may cause death. The species distribution extends considerably northwards into colder waters so decreases in water temperature are unlikely to have any effect. Exposure to below zero air temperatures appears to have no effect. The annual life cycle, high fecundity and long planktonic larval stage means that successful recruitment from other populations is likely.
Intermediate High Low Moderate
Decrease in temperature [Show more]

Decrease in temperature

  1. A short-term, acute change in temperature; e.g., a 5°C change in the temperature range for three consecutive days. This definition includes ‘short-term’ thermal discharges.
  2. A long-term, chronic change in temperature; e.g. a 2°C change in the temperature range for a year. This definition includes ‘long term’ thermal discharges.

For intertidal species or communities, the range of temperatures includes the air temperature regime for that species or community. Further details

Evidence

No information
Increase in turbidity [Show more]

Increase in turbidity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., two categories of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one month, such as from medium to extreme turbidity.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., one category of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one year, such as from low to medium turbidity. Further details

Evidence

This species probably has very limited facility for visual perception and as such is unlikely to be affected by turbidity. The algal substrata of Lacuna vincta also forms the main food source. Increased turbidity will reduce the photosynthetic capability of the algae and reduce the available food for the snail. However, the species is frequently found in turbid waters such as in estuaries and around the NE coast of England. As such it is unlikely to be particularly sensitive to changes in turbidity. If reduced food quality food causes a decline in condition or fitness then recovery may take a few weeks or months after restoration of food quality.
Low Very high Very Low Low
Decrease in turbidity [Show more]

Decrease in turbidity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., two categories of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one month, such as from medium to extreme turbidity.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., one category of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one year, such as from low to medium turbidity. Further details

Evidence

No information
Increase in wave exposure [Show more]

Increase in wave exposure

A change of two ranks on the wave exposure scale (view glossary) e.g., from Exposed to Extremely exposed for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

Increased wave exposure may cause the snail to be physically damaged, washed away or restrict the ability to move and feed. In areas of higher wave exposure this species selects microhabitats that provide considerable shelter - the dense turf formed by some red algae for example, often in crevices etc. The annual life cycle, high fecundity and long planktonic larval stage means that successful recruitment from other populations is likely.
Intermediate High Low Moderate
Decrease in wave exposure [Show more]

Decrease in wave exposure

A change of two ranks on the wave exposure scale (view glossary) e.g., from Exposed to Extremely exposed for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

No information
Noise [Show more]

Noise

  1. Underwater noise levels e.g., the regular passing of a 30-metre trawler at 100 metres or a working cutter-suction transfer dredge at 100 metres for one month during important feeding or breeding periods.
  2. Atmospheric noise levels e.g., the regular passing of a Boeing 737 passenger jet 300 metres overhead for one month during important feeding or breeding periods. Further details

Evidence

This species probably has very limited facility for vibration detection and as such is unlikely to be sensitive to noise.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low
Visual presence [Show more]

Visual presence

Benchmark. The continuous presence for one month of moving objects not naturally found in the marine environment (e.g., boats, machinery, and humans) within the visual envelope of the species or community under consideration. Further details

Evidence

This species probably has very limited facility for visual perception and as such is unlikely to be sensitive to visual presence.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low
Abrasion & physical disturbance [Show more]

Abrasion & physical disturbance

Benchmark. Force equivalent to a standard scallop dredge landing on or being dragged across the organism. A single event is assumed for assessment. This factor includes mechanical interference, crushing, physical blows against, or rubbing and erosion of the organism or habitat of interest. Where trampling is relevant, the evidence and trampling intensity will be reported in the rationale. Further details.

Evidence

The species is small and the shell is probably quite easily damaged, abrasion is likely to cause death. The annual life cycle, high fecundity and long planktonic larval stage means that successful recruitment from other populations is likely.
High High Moderate Low
Displacement [Show more]

Displacement

Benchmark. Removal of the organism from the substratum and displacement from its original position onto a suitable substratum. A single event is assumed for assessment. Further details

Evidence

The species is mobile and can use mucus thread drifting to move away from unsuitable conditions. Displacement will have no effect
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low

Chemical pressures

Use [show more] / [show less] to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination [Show more]

Synthetic compound contamination

Sensitivity is assessed against the available evidence for the effects of contaminants on the species (or closely related species at low confidence) or community of interest. For example:

  • evidence of mass mortality of a population of the species or community of interest (either short or long term) in response to a contaminant will be ranked as high sensitivity;
  • evidence of reduced abundance, or extent of a population of the species or community of interest (either short or long term) in response to a contaminant will be ranked as intermediate sensitivity;
  • evidence of sub-lethal effects or reduced reproductive potential of a population of the species or community of interest will be assessed as low sensitivity.

The evidence used is stated in the rationale. Where the assessment can be based on a known activity then this is stated. The tolerance to contaminants of species of interest will be included in the rationale when available; together with relevant supporting material. Further details.

Evidence

Insufficient
information
No information No information No information Not relevant
Heavy metal contamination [Show more]

Heavy metal contamination

Evidence

Insufficient
information
No information No information No information Not relevant
Hydrocarbon contamination [Show more]

Hydrocarbon contamination

Evidence

Observations following the Amoco Cadiz oil spill at Roscoff showed that gastropod populations were greatly reduced. Populations had recovered a year later. The annual life cycle, high fecundity and long planktonic larval stage means that successful recruitment from other populations is likely.
Intermediate High Low Moderate
Radionuclide contamination [Show more]

Radionuclide contamination

Evidence

Insufficient
information
No information No information No information Not relevant
Changes in nutrient levels [Show more]

Changes in nutrient levels

Evidence

The species occurs on all British and Irish coasts, including lower salinity areas such as estuaries where nutrient loading is likely to be higher than elsewhere. Higher nutrients may benefit the algal substrata and food used by the snail.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Low
Increase in salinity [Show more]

Increase in salinity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., a change of two categories from the MNCR salinity scale for one week (view glossary) such as from full to reduced.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., a change of one category from the MNCR salinity scale for one year (view glossary) such as from reduced to low. Further details.

Evidence

The species is found in a range of salinities and has been recorded in salinities as low as 12-13 psu.
Tolerant Not relevant Not sensitive Moderate
Decrease in salinity [Show more]

Decrease in salinity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., a change of two categories from the MNCR salinity scale for one week (view glossary) such as from full to reduced.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., a change of one category from the MNCR salinity scale for one year (view glossary) such as from reduced to low. Further details.

Evidence

No information
Changes in oxygenation [Show more]

Changes in oxygenation

Benchmark.  Exposure to a dissolved oxygen concentration of 2 mg/l for one week. Further details.

Evidence

Living in sheltered microhabitats with little water exchange, some individuals may die as a result of lowered oxygen concentrations. The annual life cycle, high fecundity and long planktonic larval stage means that successful recruitment from other populations is likely.
Intermediate High Low Very low

Biological pressures

Use [show more] / [show less] to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites [Show more]

Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites

Benchmark. Sensitivity can only be assessed relative to a known, named disease, likely to cause partial loss of a species population or community. Further details.

Evidence

Insufficient
information
No information No information No information Not relevant
Introduction of non-native species [Show more]

Introduction of non-native species

Sensitivity assessed against the likely effect of the introduction of alien or non-native species in Britain or Ireland. Further details.

Evidence

Insufficient
information
No information No information No information Not relevant
Extraction of this species [Show more]

Extraction of this species

Benchmark. Extraction removes 50% of the species or community from the area under consideration. Sensitivity will be assessed as 'intermediate'. The habitat remains intact or recovers rapidly. Any effects of the extraction process on the habitat itself are addressed under other factors, e.g. displacement, abrasion and physical disturbance, and substratum loss. Further details.

Evidence

It is highly unlikely that there would be a reason for extraction of this species. Despite its abundance, its small size means that it is too small to eat and not a popular subject for scientific research.
Not relevant Not relevant Not relevant Low
Extraction of other species [Show more]

Extraction of other species

Benchmark. A species that is a required host or prey for the species under consideration (and assuming that no alternative host exists) or a keystone species in a biotope is removed. Any effects of the extraction process on the habitat itself are addressed under other factors, e.g. displacement, abrasion and physical disturbance, and substratum loss. Further details.

Evidence

Some of the algal species used by the snail as substratum and food may be extracted for commercial use as fertiliser etc (Laminaria spp. for example). The annual life cycle, high fecundity and long planktonic larval stage means that successful recruitment from other populations is likely.
Intermediate High Low Low

Additional information

Importance review

Policy/legislation

- no data -

Status

Non-native

ParameterData
Native-
Origin-
Date Arrived-

Importance information

Very limited use in research. National abundance classification is not available but is probably widespread.

Bibliography

  1. Bieler, R., 1992. Gastropod phylogeny and systematics. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23, 311 -338.

  2. Campbell, A., 1994. Seashores and shallow seas of Britain and Europe. London: Hamlyn.

  3. Fretter, V. & Graham, A., 1994. British prosobranch molluscs: their functional anatomy and ecology, revised and updated edition. London: The Ray Society.

  4. Fretter, V. & Manly, R., 1977. Algal associations of Triclia pullus, Lacuna vincta & Cerithiopsis tuberculosis (Gastropoda) with special reference to the settlement of their larvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 999-1017.

  5. Graham, A., 1988. Molluscs: prosobranchs and pyramellid gastropods (2nd ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 2]

  6. Grahame, J., 1977. Reproductive effort and r- and K- selection in two species of Lacuna (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Marine Biology, 40, 217-224.

  7. Grahame, J., 1994. Energetics of growth and reproduction in 2 species of chink shells (Lacuna, Mollusca, Prosobranchia). Cahiers de Biologie Marine. 35, 327-338.

  8. Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C. 1996. Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins.

  9. Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.) 1995b. Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  10. Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E., 1997. The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.]

  11. Jacobs, R.P.W.M., 1980. Effects of the Amoco Cadiz oil spill on the seagrass community at Roscoff with special reference to the benthic infauna. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2, 207-212.

  12. Martel, A. & Chia, F.S., 1991a. Oviposition, larval abundance, in situ larval growth and recruitment of the herbivorous gastropod, Lacuna vincta in kelp canopies of Barkley Sound, Vancouver Island (British Columbia). Marine Biology, 110, 237-247.

  13. Martel, A. & Diefenbach, T., 1993. Effects of body size, water currents and microhabitat on mucous thread drifting in post-metamorphic gastropods, Lacuna spp. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 19, 215-220.

  14. Padilla, D.K., Dittman, D.E., Franz, J. & Sladek, R., 1996. Radular production rates in 2 species of Lacuna, Turton (Gastropoda: Littorinidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 62, 275-280.

  15. Ponder, W.F. & Lindberg, D.R., 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 119, 83-265.

  16. Taylor, J.D.(ed.), 1996. Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Datasets

  1. Centre for Environmental Data and Recording, 2018. Ulster Museum Marine Surveys of Northern Ireland Coastal Waters. Occurrence dataset https://www.nmni.com/CEDaR/CEDaR-Centre-for-Environmental-Data-and-Recording.aspx accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-09-25.

  2. Cofnod – North Wales Environmental Information Service, 2018. Miscellaneous records held on the Cofnod database. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/hcgqsi accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.

  3. Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2018. Mollusc (marine) data for Great Britain and Ireland - restricted access. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/4bsawx accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.

  4. Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 2018. Mollusc (marine) records for Great Britain and Ireland. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/aurwcz accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-25.

  5. Environmental Records Information Centre North East, 2018. ERIC NE Combined dataset to 2017. Occurrence dataset: http://www.ericnortheast.org.ukl accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-09-38

  6. Fife Nature Records Centre, 2018. St Andrews BioBlitz 2014. Occurrence dataset: https://doi.org/10.15468/erweal accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-09-27.

  7. Kent Wildlife Trust, 2018. Kent Wildlife Trust Shoresearch Intertidal Survey 2004 onwards. Occurrence dataset: https://www.kentwildlifetrust.org.uk/ accessed via NBNAtlas.org on 2018-10-01.

  8. NBN (National Biodiversity Network) Atlas. Available from: https://www.nbnatlas.org.

  9. OBIS (Ocean Biodiversity Information System),  2024. Global map of species distribution using gridded data. Available from: Ocean Biogeographic Information System. www.iobis.org. Accessed: 2024-07-21

Citation

This review can be cited as:

Jackson, A. 2007. Lacuna vincta Banded chink shell. In Tyler-Walters H. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 21-07-2024]. Available from: https://marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1287

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Last Updated: 07/06/2007