Northern sea fan (Swiftia pallida)

Distribution data supplied by the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS). To interrogate UK data visit the NBN Atlas.Map Help

Summary

Description

A small sea-fan which forms slender colonies with little branching, up to 20 cm tall but usually 7-10 cm. Colour white or greyish, sometimes with a pinkish tinge.

Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland

West coast of Scotland and the southwest Irish coast.

Global distribution

Possibly also in deep water from the Bay of Biscay, Meditteranean, Madeira and Morocco.

Habitat

Found on rocks and boulders from depths of 15-60 m, most frequently below 20 m. Also recorded on coarse pebbles lying in coarse shell sand with silt. May occur at depths of 2380 m (see additional information).

Depth range

15-60 m

Identifying features

  • Main stem with narrow basal attachment, usually with few secondary or tertiary branches but these are not invariably present.
  • Polyps variably arranged: typically alternating on opposite sides of the axis with occasional ones at right angles to this plane, sometimes more densely and less regularly distributed.
  • Polyps with eight distinct points of long spindle-shaped sclerites on distal part of column, running onto tentacle bases.

Additional information

It has been suggested (Manuel 1981) that Swiftia pallida is conspecific with Gorgonia pinnata Johnston 1847.

Biology review

Taxonomy

LevelScientific nameCommon name
PhylumCnidaria
ClassAnthozoa
OrderAlcyonacea
FamilyPlexauridae
GenusSwiftia
AuthorityMadsen, 1970
Recent Synonyms

Biology

ParameterData
Typical abundanceModerate density
Male size range7 -20 cm
Male size at maturity
Female size range
Female size at maturity
Growth formArborescent / Arbuscular
Growth rateunknown
Body flexibilityNo information
MobilitySessile, permanent attachment
Characteristic feeding methodPassive suspension feeder
Diet/food sourcePlanktotroph
Typically feeds onSuspended matter including plankton
SociabilityNo information
Environmental positionEpifaunal
DependencyNone.
SupportsHost

Amphianthus dohrnii

Is the species harmful?No

Biology information

Abundance may be up to 3 colonies per m (Minchin, 1987). Growth rates for this species are unknown, however, the pink sea fan Eunicella verrucosa has highly variable growth. A population of Eunicella verrucosa at Lundy Island has growth rates of approximately 1 cm/year, which may possibly be similar to Swiftia pallida. This species is host to the sea fan anemone Amphianthus dohrnii which is found growing almost exclusively on sea fans, and in more southern latitudes is associated with the pink sea fan Eunicella verrucosa.

Habitat preferences

ParameterData
Physiographic preferences
Biological zone preferences
Substratum / habitat preferences
Tidal strength preferences
Wave exposure preferences
Salinity preferences
Depth range15-60 m
Other preferences

No text entered

Migration PatternNon-migratory or resident

Habitat Information

Swiftia pallida has been reported from numerous locations in western Scotland, including the Minch and inner and outer Hebrides, the west coast of the Highlands and Argyll and Bute. It has been found as far north as Kinlochbervie and as far south as the Isle of Bute. This sea fan has also been recorded from Kenmare River, Ireland.

Swiftia pallida has also been recorded from the Bay of Biscay and the Meditteranean (Manuel 1988), however, it is doubtful as to whether this was the same species. Mitchell et al. (1983) suggest that Swiftia pallida is at the southern limit of its range in Scotland and Ireland.

Depth. Although most commonly recorded from depths between 18-60 m, Swiftia pallida has also been reported from up to 1200 m off the coast of Ireland and 2380 m off Northwest Africa (Grasshoff 1977 cited in Minchin 1987c).

Life history

Adult characteristics

ParameterData
Reproductive typeNo information
Reproductive frequency Annual episodic
Fecundity (number of eggs)No information
Generation timeInsufficient information
Age at maturityInsufficient information
SeasonInsufficient information
Life span11-20 years

Larval characteristics

ParameterData
Larval/propagule type-
Larval/juvenile development Lecithotrophic
Duration of larval stageSee additional information
Larval dispersal potential See additional information
Larval settlement period

Life history information

Populations of Swiftia pallida are thought to be self-sustaining, with short-lived larvae and limited potential for larval dispersal. It is thought that colonization of the Shetland Islands has been prevented by geographical barriers (Hiscock et al., 2001). Reproduction is likely to be annual and may be triggered by either summer high or winter low temperatures (Hiscock et al., 2001). Although Swiftia pallida has not been specifically studied, in other gorgonians the average number of eggs per polyp increases with increasing colony size. Egg release from larger colonies can be orders of magnitude higher than for smaller colonies (Beiring & Lasker, 2000). It has been suggested that when a large colony size is attained, more energy is available for reproduction because relative colony growth decreases (Beiring & Lasker, 2000).

Sensitivity reviewHow is sensitivity assessed?

Physical pressures

Use / to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Substratum loss [Show more]

Substratum loss

Benchmark. All of the substratum occupied by the species or biotope under consideration is removed. A single event is assumed for sensitivity assessment. Once the activity or event has stopped (or between regular events) suitable substratum remains or is deposited. Species or community recovery assumes that the substratum within the habitat preferences of the original species or community is present. Further details

Evidence

Swiftia pallida would be removed by removal of the substratum, therefore intolerance has been assessed as high. Recovery would depend on the proximity of viable adults in the locality, as larval distribution is limited. If an entire population were removed, then recovery is unlikely. Hence recoverability is assessed as very low, resulting in a very high sensitivity assessment.

High Very low / none No information Very low
Smothering [Show more]

Smothering

Benchmark. All of the population of a species or an area of a biotope is smothered by sediment to a depth of 5 cm above the substratum for one month. Impermeable materials, such as concrete, oil, or tar, are likely to have a greater effect. Further details.

Evidence

Swiftia pallida usually grows to heights of less than 10cm, so smothering is likely to kill small colonies, and probably cause mortality of the polyps which are buried in larger colonies. Hence intolerance is assessed as intermediate. Recovery is dependant on the presence of viable adults near by, so if the entire population consists of small colonies that will be killed, recovery is very unlikely. If, however, the population contains colonies which grow above the benchmark level of 5 cm, then recovery is likely, but will probably take several years. Therefore recovery is assessed as low, resulting in a high sensitivity ranking.

Intermediate Low No information Low
Increase in suspended sediment [Show more]

Increase in suspended sediment

Benchmark. An arbitrary short-term, acute change in background suspended sediment concentration e.g., a change of 100 mg/l for one month. The resultant light attenuation effects are addressed under turbidity, and the effects of rapid settling out of suspended sediment are addressed under smothering. Further details

Evidence

Swiftia pallida is thought to be tollerant of some siltation (Mitchell et al., 1983), and is found on rocks covered with a fine layer of silt. Further, while siltation may inhibit feeding, colonies of the sea fan Eunicella verrucosa produce mucus to clear themselves of silt (Hiscock pers comm.). Therefore Swiftia pallida has been assessed as tolerant to this factor, and is not sensitive.

Tolerant Not relevant No information Moderate
Decrease in suspended sediment [Show more]

Decrease in suspended sediment

Benchmark. An arbitrary short-term, acute change in background suspended sediment concentration e.g., a change of 100 mg/l for one month. The resultant light attenuation effects are addressed under turbidity, and the effects of rapid settling out of suspended sediment are addressed under smothering. Further details

Evidence

It is possible that Swiftia pallida may feed on small particulate matter in suspended sediment, so a large reduction in this factor may result in reduced food availability for the sea fan. However at the benchmark level of a one month change, the effects are deemed unlikely to be fatal, so the species has been assessed as tolerant. Recovery is likely to be immediate on return to normal conditions, therefore not sensitive has been recorded.

Tolerant Immediate No information Low
Desiccation [Show more]

Desiccation

  1. A normally subtidal, demersal or pelagic species including intertidal migratory or under-boulder species is continuously exposed to air and sunshine for one hour.
  2. A normally intertidal species or community is exposed to a change in desiccation equivalent to a change in position of one vertical biological zone on the shore, e.g., from upper eulittoral to the mid eulittoral or from sublittoral fringe to lower eulittoral for a period of one year. Further details.

Evidence

Sea fans are found only in the circalittoral where desiccation will not occur.

Not relevant Not relevant No information Not relevant
Increase in emergence regime [Show more]

Increase in emergence regime

Benchmark. A one hour change in the time covered or not covered by the sea for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

Sea fans are found only in the circalittoral and so changes in emergence are not relevant.

Not relevant Not relevant No information Not relevant
Decrease in emergence regime [Show more]

Decrease in emergence regime

Benchmark. A one hour change in the time covered or not covered by the sea for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

Sea fans are found only in the circalittoral and so changes in emergence are not relevant.

Not relevant Not relevant No information Not relevant
Increase in water flow rate [Show more]

Increase in water flow rate

A change of two categories in water flow rate (view glossary) for 1 year, for example, from moderately strong (1-3 knots) to very weak (negligible). Further details

Evidence

Sea fans are found in strong tidal streams but most likely retract their polyps when current velocity gets too high for the polyps to retain food (Hiscock pers. comm.), leading to a reduction in viability. Tidal streams exert a steady pull on the colonies and are therefore likely to detach only very weakly attached colonies. Hence intolerance has been assessed as intermediate. Due to limited recruitment and slow growth rate, recoverability is assessed as moderate, therefore sensitivity is moderate.

Intermediate Moderate No information Very low
Decrease in water flow rate [Show more]

Decrease in water flow rate

A change of two categories in water flow rate (view glossary) for 1 year, for example, from moderately strong (1-3 knots) to very weak (negligible). Further details

Evidence

Swiftia pallida is a filter feeder, so relies on high water flow rates to bring food and to remove silt. Colonies deprived of food may be adversely affected and, without significant water flow to remove silt, silt may kill tissue leaving areas bare of coenenchyme to be colonized by encrusting organisms. Due to limited recruitment and slow growth rate, recoverability is assessed as moderate, therefore sensitivity is moderate.

Intermediate Moderate No information
Increase in temperature [Show more]

Increase in temperature

  1. A short-term, acute change in temperature; e.g., a 5°C change in the temperature range for three consecutive days. This definition includes ‘short-term’ thermal discharges.
  2. A long-term, chronic change in temperature; e.g. a 2°C change in the temperature range for a year. This definition includes ‘long term’ thermal discharges.

For intertidal species or communities, the range of temperatures includes the air temperature regime for that species or community. Further details

Evidence

Mitchell et al., (1983) suggested that the Scottish and Irish populations of Swiftia pallida are at the southern limit of the species range (although this is contested by Hiscock et al., 2001), all sources agree that an increase in temperature is likely to lead to reduction or loss of this sea fan (Hiscock et al., 2001; Jones et al., 2002). At the benchmark level of an increase of 2°C for one year, reproductive success may be impaired, leading to a loss of new recruits, but existing colonies are likely to persist. This would suggest an intolerance of intermediate, however the species had been assessed as highly intolerant, because as colonies die off populations are likely to gradually decrease in density over time after a critically high temperature threshold is reached. Hiscock et al. (2001) predicted the loss of all populations occurring in the Inner Hebrides and mainland western Scotland with a 2°C increase in summer surface temperatures over a 20 year period.
Temperature may also affect the incidence of disease (see Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites).
Recovery is dependant on larval recruitment, which is thought to be local (Hiscock et al., 2001), but as reproduction may be dependant on lower temperatures, warmer waters are likely to reduce reproductive viability, so new recruits are not likely. Hence recoverability has been assessed as low, resulting in a high sensitivity value. Populations are unlikely to shift to a more northern distribution because they are self sustaining, so geographical barriers are likely to prevent more northern colonization, as "illustrated by the absence of Swiftia pallida from the Shetland Islands (Hiscock et al., 2001).

Intermediate Low No information Moderate
Decrease in temperature [Show more]

Decrease in temperature

  1. A short-term, acute change in temperature; e.g., a 5°C change in the temperature range for three consecutive days. This definition includes ‘short-term’ thermal discharges.
  2. A long-term, chronic change in temperature; e.g. a 2°C change in the temperature range for a year. This definition includes ‘long term’ thermal discharges.

For intertidal species or communities, the range of temperatures includes the air temperature regime for that species or community. Further details

Evidence

As the species may be at the southern limit of its distribution in the UK, Swiftia pallida is likely to be tolerant of, or possibly even benefit from a decrease in temperature. Therefore the sea fan has been assessed as tolerant and not sensitive. However, range extensions are unlikely due to limited larval distribution and geographical barriers (Hiscock et al., 2001).

Tolerant Not relevant No information Low
Increase in turbidity [Show more]

Increase in turbidity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., two categories of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one month, such as from medium to extreme turbidity.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., one category of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one year, such as from low to medium turbidity. Further details

Evidence

Swiftia pallida is normally found in turbid waters at depths of 20 m or more, therefore a reduction in light penetration from increased turbidity is unlikely to affect this species. As such, Swiftia pallida has been assessed as tolerant, and not sensitive to this factor.

Tolerant Not relevant No information Very low
Decrease in turbidity [Show more]

Decrease in turbidity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., two categories of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one month, such as from medium to extreme turbidity.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., one category of the water clarity scale (see glossary) for one year, such as from low to medium turbidity. Further details

Evidence

Swiftia pallida probably feeds primarily on plankton rather than suspended organic matter, therefore decreases in turbidity may reduce the amount of food available for the sea fan. However, due to insufficient information on the effects of this on the species, no assessment has been made.

No information No information No information No information
Increase in wave exposure [Show more]

Increase in wave exposure

A change of two ranks on the wave exposure scale (view glossary) e.g., from Exposed to Extremely exposed for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

Swiftia pallida is normally found below 18 m where strong surge does not occur, therefore this factor is no relevant. The pink sea fan Eunicella verrucosa has been observed to be detached by severe storms, however this species grows at shallower depths than Swiftia pallida.

Not relevant Not relevant No information Not relevant
Decrease in wave exposure [Show more]

Decrease in wave exposure

A change of two ranks on the wave exposure scale (view glossary) e.g., from Exposed to Extremely exposed for a period of one year. Further details

Evidence

Swiftia pallida is normally found below 18 m where strong surge does not occur, therefore this factor is no relevant.

Not relevant Not relevant No information Not relevant
Noise [Show more]

Noise

  1. Underwater noise levels e.g., the regular passing of a 30-metre trawler at 100 metres or a working cutter-suction transfer dredge at 100 metres for one month during important feeding or breeding periods.
  2. Atmospheric noise levels e.g., the regular passing of a Boeing 737 passenger jet 300 metres overhead for one month during important feeding or breeding periods. Further details

Evidence

Anthozoans have no known ability to detect noise.

Not relevant Not relevant No information Not relevant
Visual presence [Show more]

Visual presence

Benchmark. The continuous presence for one month of moving objects not naturally found in the marine environment (e.g., boats, machinery, and humans) within the visual envelope of the species or community under consideration. Further details

Evidence

Anthozoans have no known ability for visual perception.

Not relevant Not relevant No information Not relevant
Abrasion & physical disturbance [Show more]

Abrasion & physical disturbance

Benchmark. Force equivalent to a standard scallop dredge landing on or being dragged across the organism. A single event is assumed for assessment. This factor includes mechanical interference, crushing, physical blows against, or rubbing and erosion of the organism or habitat of interest. Where trampling is relevant, the evidence and trampling intensity will be reported in the rationale. Further details.

Evidence

Entanglement in fishing nets and angling line can cause abrasion that may damage the coenenchyme and expose the gorgonin skeleton, which can facilitate the settlement of fouling epibionts, as is the case in the Pink seafan Eunicella verrucosa (Anonynous, 2006). Colonisation by fouling epibiota will increase drag, and may include species that bore into the skeleton and weaken the colony (impacts observed on the structurally similar sea fan Paramuricea clavata described by Bavestrello et al., 1997). Therefore intolerance is assessed as intermediate.
Eno et al. (1996) suggested that Eunicella verrucosa was "remarkably resilient" to impact from lobster pots. They found that some seafan colonies returned to an upright position immediately after impact, while others were permanently bent, which would reduce feeing efficiency. However Tinsley (2006) observed flattened seafans which had continued growing, with new growth being aligned perpendicular to the current, so clearly even colonies of Eunicella verrucosa which are damaged can continue to survive.
Healthy Eunicella verrucosa are able to recover from minor damage and scratches to the coenenchyme (Tinsley, 2006), and the coenenchyme covering the axial skeleton will re-grow over scrapes on one side of the skeleton in about one week (Keith Hiscock, pers. comm.). However, where whole individuals are killed recovery is likely to be low due to slow growth and poor recruitment, therefore overall recoverability is assessed as moderate. Hence a moderate sensitivity assessment has been made.

Intermediate Moderate No information Moderate
Displacement [Show more]

Displacement

Benchmark. Removal of the organism from the substratum and displacement from its original position onto a suitable substratum. A single event is assumed for assessment. Further details

Evidence

Swiftia pallida colonies grow attached to hard substrata, often perpendicular to the current. Displacement is likely to impair feeding and cause abrasion and mortality, as colonies are unable to re-attach to the substrata following displacement. Therefore intolerance to this factor is assessed as high, and recovery very low, resulting in a very high sensitivity value.

High No information Moderate

Chemical pressures

Use [show more] / [show less] to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Synthetic compound contamination [Show more]

Synthetic compound contamination

Sensitivity is assessed against the available evidence for the effects of contaminants on the species (or closely related species at low confidence) or community of interest. For example:

  • evidence of mass mortality of a population of the species or community of interest (either short or long term) in response to a contaminant will be ranked as high sensitivity;
  • evidence of reduced abundance, or extent of a population of the species or community of interest (either short or long term) in response to a contaminant will be ranked as intermediate sensitivity;
  • evidence of sub-lethal effects or reduced reproductive potential of a population of the species or community of interest will be assessed as low sensitivity.

The evidence used is stated in the rationale. Where the assessment can be based on a known activity then this is stated. The tolerance to contaminants of species of interest will be included in the rationale when available; together with relevant supporting material. Further details.

Evidence

Insufficient
information.

No information No information No information No information
Heavy metal contamination [Show more]

Heavy metal contamination

Evidence

Insufficient
information.

No information No information No information No information
Hydrocarbon contamination [Show more]

Hydrocarbon contamination

Evidence

Insufficient
information.

No information No information No information No information
Radionuclide contamination [Show more]

Radionuclide contamination

Evidence

Insufficient
information.

No information No information No information No information
Changes in nutrient levels [Show more]

Changes in nutrient levels

Evidence

No information could be found on the effect of a change in nutrient levels on Swiftia pallida. Sea fans feed on planktonic organisms and, although abundance of those organisms might change as nutrient concentrations vary, the long term effects on food sources are not likely to be significant (Keith Hiscock per comm.). Any colonies growing at shallow depths may be smothered by ephemeral algae, as is the case with Eunicella verrucosa, however the majority of Swiftia pallida are found below the photic zone at 18 m depth, so are assessed as tolerant to this factor.

Tolerant Not relevant No information Very low
Increase in salinity [Show more]

Increase in salinity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., a change of two categories from the MNCR salinity scale for one week (view glossary) such as from full to reduced.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., a change of one category from the MNCR salinity scale for one year (view glossary) such as from reduced to low. Further details.

Evidence

Swiftia pallida occurs in full salinity conditions, where hypersaline conditions are unlikely, therefore this factor is not relevant.

Not relevant Not relevant No information Moderate
Decrease in salinity [Show more]

Decrease in salinity

  1. A short-term, acute change; e.g., a change of two categories from the MNCR salinity scale for one week (view glossary) such as from full to reduced.
  2. A long-term, chronic change; e.g., a change of one category from the MNCR salinity scale for one year (view glossary) such as from reduced to low. Further details.

Evidence

No evidence was found on the tolerance of Swiftia pallida to a change in salinity. However the species occurs in fully saline conditions, so is assessed as highly intolerant to a decrease in salinity. Recovery would be very low due to poor larval recruitment and slow growth, therefore Swiftia pallida has been assessed as highly sensitive to a decrease in salinity.

High No information
Changes in oxygenation [Show more]

Changes in oxygenation

Benchmark.  Exposure to a dissolved oxygen concentration of 2 mg/l for one week. Further details.

Evidence

No information was found on the effects of hypoxia on Swiftia pallida. However, the species lives in fully oxygenated conditions with high water flow levels, so it is expected that the seafan would be highly intolerant of decreased oxygen levels. Recovery will depend on recruitment, but is unlikely if surviving colonies are distant due to poor larval dispersal. Therefore recoverability has been assessed as very low, resulting in a very high sensitivity value.

High No information Very low

Biological pressures

Use [show more] / [show less] to open/close text displayed

 IntoleranceRecoverabilitySensitivityEvidence / Confidence
Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites [Show more]

Introduction of microbial pathogens/parasites

Benchmark. Sensitivity can only be assessed relative to a known, named disease, likely to cause partial loss of a species population or community. Further details.

Evidence

No information was found on disease in Swiftia pallida, however another seafan Eunicella verrucosa, suffers from a disease which causes necrosis of the Coenchyme tissue, allowing fouling organisms to settle on the exposed gorgonin skeleton. Diseased colonies have high concentrations of bacteria, particularly Vibrio tasmaniensis, which appears to induce disease at higher temperatures, as colonies became infected at 20°C but remained healthy at 15°C (Hall-Spencer et al.).

No information No information No information No information
Introduction of non-native species [Show more]

Introduction of non-native species

Sensitivity assessed against the likely effect of the introduction of alien or non-native species in Britain or Ireland. Further details.

Evidence

No non-native species are known to be associated with or adversely affect Swiftia pallida.

No information No information No information No information
Extraction of this species [Show more]

Extraction of this species

Benchmark. Extraction removes 50% of the species or community from the area under consideration. Sensitivity will be assessed as 'intermediate'. The habitat remains intact or recovers rapidly. Any effects of the extraction process on the habitat itself are addressed under other factors, e.g. displacement, abrasion and physical disturbance, and substratum loss. Further details.

Evidence

Swiftia pallida is not known to be harvested.

Not relevant Not relevant No information Not relevant
Extraction of other species [Show more]

Extraction of other species

Benchmark. A species that is a required host or prey for the species under consideration (and assuming that no alternative host exists) or a keystone species in a biotope is removed. Any effects of the extraction process on the habitat itself are addressed under other factors, e.g. displacement, abrasion and physical disturbance, and substratum loss. Further details.

Evidence

Seafans are vulnerable to damage by mobile fishing gear, particularly in areas where they grow on low lying reefs adjacent to scallop beds (Tinsley, 2006). Trawling is likely to remove or severely damage Swiftia pallida.
Eno et al. (1996) suggested that Eunicella verrucosa was "remarkably resilient" to impact from lobster pots. They found that some seafan colonies returned to an upright position immediately after impact, while others were permanently bent, which would reduce feeing efficiency. However Tinsley (2006) observed flattened seafans which had continued growing, with new growth being aligned perpendicular to the current, so clearly even colonies of Eunicella verrucosa which are damaged in this manner can continue to survive.
Despite the likelihood that Swiftia pallida is resilient to static fishing, it has been assessed as highly intolerant due to the effect of dredges and trawls. Recovery of dislodged seafans is unlikely, and these colonies will probably die. Settlement of new colonies is dependant on recruitment, and larval supply, which is low, therefore recoverability is assessed as very low, resulting in a very high sensitivity value.

High No information Low

Additional information

Recoverability. The growth rates of Swiftia pallida are unknown. However, the pink sea fan Eunicella verrucosa has highly variable growth, with populations on Lundy showing a one centimetre branch extension per year (Keith Hiscock pers comm.). If growth rates are similar between the two species, then recovery of Swiftia pallida to a size of 10 cm is likely to take at least 10 years. Populations of Swiftia pallida are thought to be self-sustaining, so recolonization is dependent on nearby viable adult populations.

Importance review

Policy/legislation

DesignationSupport
UK Biodiversity Action Plan PriorityYes

Status

Non-native

ParameterData
Native-
Origin-
Date Arrived-

Importance information

-none-

Bibliography

  1. Anonymous Accessed 16 January 2009. The Pink Seafan Website: Threats & Legislation. ,

  2. Beiring, E.A. & Lasker, H.R., 2000. Egg production by colonies of a gorgonian coral. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 196, 169-177.

  3. Coffroth, M.A. & Lasker, H.R., 1998. Population structure of a clonal gorgonian coral: The interplay between clonal reproduction and disturbance. Evolution, 52(2), 379-393.

  4. Eno, N.C., MacDonald, D. & Amos, S.C., 1996. A study on the effects of fish (Crustacea/Molluscs) traps on benthic habitats and species. Final report to the European Commission. Study Contract, no. 94/076.

  5. Hall-Spencer, J.M., Pike, J. & Munn, C.B., 2007. Diseases affect cold-water corals too: Eunicella verrucosa (Cnidaria: Gorgonacea) necrosis in SW England Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 76, 87-97.

  6. Hiscock, K., Southward, A., Tittley, I., Jory, A. & Hawkins, S., 2001. The impact of climate change on subtidal and intertidal benthic species in Scotland. Scottish National Heritage Research, Survey and Monitoring Report , no. 182., Edinburgh: Scottish National Heritage

  7. Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E., 1997. The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.]

  8. Howson, C.M., Connor, D.W. & Holt, R.H.F., 1994. The Scottish sealochs - an account of surveys undertaken for the Marine Nature Conservation Review. Joint Nature Conservation Committee Report, No. 164 (Marine Nature Conservation Review Report MNCR/SR/27)., Joint Nature Conservation Committee Report, No. 164 (Marine Nature Conservation Review Report MNCR/SR/27).

  9. Lasker, H.R., 1984. Asexual reproduction, fragmentation, and skeletal morphology of a plexaurid gorgonian. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 19, 261-268.

  10. Manuel, R.L., 1988. British Anthozoa. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series) (ed. D.M. Kermack & R.S.K. Barnes). The Linnean Society of London [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 18.]. DOI https://doi.org/10.1002/iroh.19810660505

  11. Minchin, D., 1987. Swiftia pallida Madsen (Coelenterata: Gorgonacea) in Irish waters, with a note on Pseudanthessiusthorelli (Brady) (Crustacea: Copepoda) new to Ireland Irish Naturalists' Journal, 22(5), 183-185

  12. Mitchell, R., Earll, R.C. & Dipper, F.A., 1983. Shallow sublittoral ecosystems in the Inner Hebrides. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Section B 83 161-184

  13. Moore, C.G., Saunders, G., Mair, J.M. and Lyndon, A.R., 2006. The inauguration of site condition monitoring of marine features of Loch Maddy Special Area of Conservation. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 152 (ROAME No. F02AA409).

  14. Picton, B.E. & Morrow C.C., 2005. Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland http://www.habitas.org.uk/marinelife/species.asp?item=D10920, 2008-01-08

  15. Tinsley, P., 2006. Worbarrow Reefs Sea Fan Project, 2003-2005 Dorset Wildlife Trust Report

Datasets

  1. NBN (National Biodiversity Network) Atlas. Available from: https://www.nbnatlas.org.

  2. OBIS (Ocean Biodiversity Information System),  2024. Global map of species distribution using gridded data. Available from: Ocean Biogeographic Information System. www.iobis.org. Accessed: 2024-05-28

Citation

This review can be cited as:

Wilson, E. 2007. Swiftia pallida Northern sea fan. In Tyler-Walters H. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 28-05-2024]. Available from: https://marlin.ac.uk/species/detail/1276

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Last Updated: 03/09/2007