The Marine Life Information Network

Information on the biology of species and the ecology of habitats found around the coasts and seas of the British Isles

Bibliography (A-Z)

Aartsen, van J.J. & Hoenselaar, H.J., 1984. European marine Mollusca: notes on less well-known species VIII. Caecum armoricum DeFolin, 1869. Basteria, 48, 23-26.

Aaser, H.F., Jeppesen, E. & Soendergaard, M., 1995. Seasonal dynamics of the mysid Neomysis integer and its predation on the copepod Eurytemora affinis in a shallow hypertrophic brackish lake. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 127, 47-56.

Abbott, O.J. & Perkins, E.J., 1977. The biology of the brown shrimp, Crangon crangon in the Solway Firth. Scientific Report. Cumbria Sea Fisheries District, 77, 58p.

Abbott, O.J., 1977. The toxicity of ammonium molybdate to marine invertebrates. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 8, 204-205.

Abbott, R.T. 1954. American seashells. New York: D-Van Nostrand Company Inc.

Abbott, R.T., 1974. American seashells: the marine mollusca of the Atlantic and Pacific coast of North America, 2nd edn. New York: Van Nostrand.

Abe, M., Kurashima, A. & Maegawa, M., 2008. Temperature requirements for seed germination and seedling growth of Zostera marina from central Japan. Fisheries Science, 74 (3), 589-593. DOI

Abed-Navandi, D., Koller, H. & Dworschak, P.C., 2005. Nutritional ecology of thalassinidean shrimps constructing burrows with debris chambers: The distribution and use of macronutrients and micronutrients. Marine Biology Research, 1 (3), 202-215. DOI

Abele, D., Kruppe, M., Philipp, E.E.R. & Brey, T., 2010. Mantle cavity water oxygen partial pressure (Po sub(2)) in marine molluscs aligns with lifestyle. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences/Journal Canadien des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques, 67(6), 977-986.

Abele-Oeschger, D., Sartoris, F.J. & Portner, H.O., 1997. Hydrogen peroxide causes a decrease in aerobic metabolic rate and in intracellular pH in the shrimp Crangon crangon. Journal of Experimental Biology, 200, 785-792.

Abelló, P. & Sardá, F., 1982. The fecundity of the Norway Lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.) off the Catalan and Portuguese coasts. Crustaceana, 43, 13-20.

Abelló, P., 1989. Reproduction and moulting in Liocarcinus depurator (Linnaeus, 1758) (Brachyura: Portunidae) in the Northwestern Mediterranean sea. Scientia Marina, 53, 127-134.

Abelló, P., 1989b. Reproductive biology of Macropipus tuberculatus (Roux, 1830) (Brachyura: Portunidae) in the Northwestern Mediterranean. Ophelia, 30, 47-53.

Abelló, P., Pertierra, J.P. & Reid, D.G., 1990. Sexual size dimorphism, relative growth and handedness in Liocarcinus depurator and Macropipus tuberculatus (Brachyura: Portunidae). Scientia Marina, 54, 195-202.

Abelló, P., Reid, D.G. & Naylor, E., 1991. Comparative locomotor activity patterns in the portunid crabs Liocarcinus holsatus and L. depurator. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 71, 1-10.

Abelló, P., Sardá, R. & Masales, D., 1988. Infestation of some Mediterranean brachyuran crabs by the polychaete Iphitime cuenoti. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 29, 149-162.

Abelson, A. & Denny, M., 1997. Settlement of marine organisms in flow. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28: 317-339.

Abelson, A., Weihs, D. & Loya, Y., 1994. Hydrodynamic impediments to settlement of marine propagules, and adhesive-filament solutions. Limnology and Oceanography, 39, 164-169.

Aberkali, H.B. & Trueman, E.R., 1985. Effects of environmental stress on marine bivalve molluscs. Advances in Marine Biology, 22, 101-198.

Aberson, M., Bolam, S. & Hughes, R., 2016. The effect of sewage pollution on the feeding behaviour and diet of Hediste (Nereis diversicolor (OF Müller, 1776)) in three estuaries in south-east England, with implications for saltmarsh erosion. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 105 (1), 150-160.

Able, K.W. & Hagan, S.M., 2000. Effects of common reed (Phragmites australis) invasion on marsh surface macrofauna: response of fishes and decapod crustaceans. Estuaries, 23, 633-646.

Abou-Aisha, K.M., Kobbia, I., El Abyad, M., Shabana, E.F. & Schanz, F., 1995. Impact of phosphorus loadings on macro-algal communities in the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 83 (3-4), 285-297.

Achari, G,K., 1974. Polychaetes of the family Sabellariidae with special reference to their intertidal habitat. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 38, 442-55.

Ackers, R.G., 1983. Some local and national distributions of sponges. Porcupine Newsletter, 2 (7).

Ackers, R.G., Moss, D., Picton, B.E. & Stone, S.M.K., 1985. Sponges of the British Isles (sponge IV): a colour guide and working document. , Ross on Wye: Marine Conservation Society.

Ackers, R.G.A., Moss, D. & Picton, B.E. 1992. Sponges of the British Isles (Sponges: V): a colour guide and working document. Ross-on-Wye: Marine Conservation Society.

Acosta, A., Sammarco, P.W. & Duarte, L.F.L., 2001. Asexual reproduction in a zoanthid by fragmentation: The role of exogenous factors. Bulletin of Marine Science, 68, 363-381.

Adam, P., 1993. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Adam, P., Birks, H.J.B. & Huntley, B. 1977. Plant Communities of the Island of Arran, Scotland. New Phytologist, 79, 689 - 712.

Adam, P., James, C. & Speas, C., 2008. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) Species and Conservation Assessment. Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and Gunnison National Forests.

Adams, T.P., Miller, R.G., Aleynik, D. & Burrows, M.T., 2014. Offshore marine renewable energy devices as stepping stones across biogeographical boundaries. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51 (2), 330-338.

Addessi, L., 1994. Human Disturbance and Long‐Term Changes on a Rocky Intertidal Community. Ecological Applications, 4, 786-797.

Addison, J.T., Lawler, A.R. & Nicholson, M.D., 2003. Adjusting for variable catchability of brown shrimps (Crangon crangon) in research surveys. Fisheries Research, 65, 285-294.

Addy, J.M., Levell, D. & Hartley, J.P., 1978. Biological monitoring of sediments in the Ekofisk oilfield. In Proceedings of the conference on assessment of ecological impacts of oil spills. American Institute of Biological Sciences, Keystone, Colorado 14-17 June 1978, pp.514-539.

Adey, J. M., Smith, I. P., Atkinson, R. J. A., Tuck, I. D. & Taylor, A. C., 2008. ‘Ghost fishing’ of target and non-target species by Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus creels. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 366, 119-127. DOI

Adey, W.H. & Adey, P.J., 1973. Studies on the biosystematics and ecology of the epilithic crustose corallinacea of the British Isles. British Phycological Journal, 8, 343-407.

Adey, W.H. & McKibbin, D.L., 1970. Studies on the maerl species Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) nov. comb. and Lithothamnion corallioides (Crouan) in the Ria de Vigo. Botanica Marina, 13, 100-106.

Adey, W.H., 1966. The genera Lithothamnium, Leptophytum (nov. gen.) and Phymatolithon in the Gulf of Maine. Hydrobiologia, 28, 321-370.

Adey, W.H., 1970. The effects of light and temperature on growth rates in boreal-subarctic crustose corallines. Journal of Phycology, 6, 269-276.

Adey, W.H., Masaki, T. & Akioka, H., 1976. The distribution of crustose corallines in Eastern Hokkaido and the biogeographic relationships of the flora. Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries, Hokkaido University, 26, 303-313.

Adiyodi, R.G. & Subramoniam, T., 1983. Arthropoda - Crustacea. In: Reproductive biology of invertebrates. Volume I. Oogenesis, oviposition and oosorption (ed. K.G. Adiyodi & R.G. Adiyodi), pp. 443-495. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, New York.

Afonso-Dias, M., 1998. Variability of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) populations in Scottish waters in relation to the sediment characteristics of the seabed.  PhD thesis, University of Aberdeen.

Ager, O.E.D. 2007. Alcyonidium diaphanum, Sea chervil. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Ager, O.E.D. 2008. Lanice conchilega Sand mason. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Agnew, D.J., 1989. The distribution and biology of hake (Merluccius merluccius) subject to the Northern Ireland spring fishery. ICES Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1989/G:58

Aguilar-Rosas, R., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Ávila-Serrano, G. & Marcos-Ramírez, R., 2004. First record of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Botanica Marina, 47, 255-258.

Aguilera, J., Karsten, U., Lippert, H., Voegele, B., Philipp, E., Hanelt, D. & Wiencke, C., 1999. Effects of solar radiation on growth, photosynthesis and respiration of marine macroalgae from the Arctic. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 191, 109-119.

Aguirre, J., Riding, R. & Braga, J. C., 2000. Diversity of coralline red algae: origination and extinction patterns from the Early Cretaceous to the Pleistocene. Paleobiology 26 (4): 651–667.

Aguirre-von-Wobeser, E., Figueroa, F.L. & Cabello-Pasini, A., 2000. Effect of UV radiation on photoinhibition of marine macrophytes in culture systems. Journal of Applied Phycology, 12, 159-168.

Aguzzi, J. & Sardà, F., 2008. A history of recent advancements on Nephrops norvegicus behavioral and physiological rhythms. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 18 (2), 235-248.

Ahsanullah, M., Negilski, D.S. & Mobley, M.C., 1981. Toxicity of zinc, cadmium and copper to the shrimp Callianassa australiensis. I. Effects of individual metals. Marine Biology, 64, 299-304.

Aidan Martin, R. & Harvey-Clark, C., 2004. Threatened Fishes of the World: Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus 1765) (Cetorhinidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes, 70 (2), 122-122.

Aiello, A., Fattorusso, E., Menna, M. & Pansini, M., 1996. The chemistry of the demosponge Dysidea fragilis from the lagoon of Venice. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 24 (1), 37-42.

Aiken, D.E. & Waddy, S.L., 1980. Reproductive biology. In: The biology and management of lobsters, Volume 1. (ed. J.S. Cobb & B.F. Phillips), pp. 215-276. Academic Press, London.

Airoldi, L., 2003. The effects of sedimentation on rocky coast assemblages. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 41,161-236

Airoldi, L., 2000. Responses of algae with different life histories to temporal and spatial variability of disturbance in subtidal reefs. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 195 (8), 81-92.

Airoldi, L. & Hawkins, S.J., 2007. Negative effects of sediment deposition on grazing activity and survival of the limpet Patella vulgataMarine Ecology Progress Series, 332, 235-240. DOI

Airoldi, L., Balata, D. & Beck, M.W., 2008. The Gray Zone: relationships between habitat loss and marine diversity and their applications in conservation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 366 (1), 8-15.

Aitken, A.E., 1990. Fossilization potential of Arctic fiord and continental shelf benthic macrofaunas, p. 155-176. In J.A. Dowdeswell and J.D. Scourse, eds., Glacimarine Environments: Processes and Sediments. Geological Society of London Special Publication,53, 423 pp.

Aizenberg, J., Tkachenko, A., Weiner, S., Addadi, L. & Hendler, G., 2001. Calcitic microlenses as part of the photoreceptor system in brittlestars. Nature, 412, 819-822.

Akaishi, F.M., St-Jean, S.D., Bishay, F., Clarke, J., Rabitto, I.d.S. & Ribeiro, C.A., 2007. Immunological responses, histopathological finding and disease resistance of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to treated and untreated municipal wastewater. Aquatic Toxicology, 82 (1), 1-14.

Akberali, H.B. & Black, J.E., 1980. Behavioural responses of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (da Costa) subjected to short-term copper (Cu II) concentrations. Marine Environmental Research, 4 (2), 97-107.

Al-Adhub, A.H.Y. & Naylor, E., 1975. Emergence rhythms and tidal migrations in the brown shrimp Crangon crangon. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 55, 801-810.

Al-Farraj, S., El-Gendy, A., Al Kahtani, S. & El-Hedeny, M. (2012). The impact of sewage pollution on polychaetes of Al Khumrah, South of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences 6(2): 77.

Al-Suwailem, A.M., 1991. The ecology of a saline lagoon in southern England. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Southampton.

Alander, H., 1942. Sponges from the Swedish West-coast and adjacent waters. Göteborg: Struves.

Albentosa, M., Beiras, R. & Camacho, A.P., 1994. Determination of optimal thermal conditions for growth of clam (Venerupis pullastra) seed. Aquaculture, 126, 315-328.

Albrecht, A. & Reise, K., 1994. Effects of Fucus vesiculosus covering intertidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 48 (2-3), 243-256.

Albrecht, A.S., 1998. Soft bottom versus hard rock: Community ecology of macroalgae on intertidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology229 (1), 85-109.

Alcaide, E., Gil-Sanz, C., Sanjuán, E., Esteve, D., Amaro, C. & Silveira, L., 2001. Vibrio harveyi causes disease in seahorse, Hippocampus sp. Journal of Fish Diseases, 24 (5), 311-313. DOI

Alcoverro, T., Manzanera, M. & Romero, J., 2001. Annual metabolic carbon balance of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica: the importance of carbohydrate reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 211, 105-116.

Alder, J. & Hancock, A., 1912. The British Tunicata, Vol. 3. London: Ray Society

Alderman, D.J., 1973. Fungal infection of crawfish (Palinurus elephas) exoskeleton Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 61, 595-597

Aldrich, J.C. & Regnault, M., 1990. Individual variations in the response to hypoxia in Cancer pagurus (L.) measured at the excited rate. Marine Behaviour and Physiology, 16, 225-235.

Alekseeva, E.I. & Tormosova, I.D., 1979. Maturation, spawning and fecundity of the North Sea haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus. Journal of Ichthyology, 19, 56-64

Alexander, D., Colcombe, A., Chambers, C. & Herbert, R.J.H. 2014. Conceptual Ecological Modelling of Shallow Sublittoral Coarse Sediment Habitats to Inform Indicator Selection. Marine Ecological Surveys Ltd - A report for the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, JNCC Report No: 520

Alexander, R.R., Stanton, R.J. & Dodd, J.R., 1993. Influence of sediment grain-size on the burrowing of bivalves - correlation with distribution and stratigraphic persistence of selected neogene clams. Palaios, 8, 289-303.

Alexander, W., Southgate, B.A. & Bassindale, R., 1935. Survey of the River Tees: The Estuary, Chemical and Biological. HM Stationery Office.

Alexandre, A., Santos, R. & Serrão, E., 2005. Effects of clam harvesting on sexual reproduction of the seagrass Zostera noltii. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 298, 115-122

Alexandre, A., Silva, J. & Santos, R., 2004. The maximum nitrate reductase activity of the seagrass Zostera noltii (Hornem.) varies along its vertical distribution. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 307 (1), 127-135. DOI

Alexandre, A., Silva, J., Buapet, P., Björk, M. & Santos, R., 2012. Effects of CO2 enrichment on photosynthesis, growth, and nitrogen metabolism of the seagrass Zostera noltii. Ecology and Evolution, 2 (10), 2625-2635. DOI

Alfaro, A.C., 2005. Effect of water flow and oxygen concentration on early settlement of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus. Aquaculture, 246, 285-94.

Alfaro, A.C., 2006. Byssal attachment of juvenile mussels,Perna canaliculus, affected by water motion and air bubbles. Aquaculture, 255, 357-61

Algae base, 2015. Chorda filum (Linnaeus) Stackhouse. (08 September 2009).

Alheit, J. & Naylor, E., 1976. Behavioural basis of intertidal zonation in Eurydice pulchra Leach. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 23, 135-144.

Alheit, J., 1978. Distribution of the polychaete genus Nephtys: a stratified random sampling survey. Kieler Meeresforschungen, 4, 61-67.

Ali, M., Saad, A., Reynaud, C. & Capapé, C., 2012. Occurence of Basking Shark, Cetorhinus maximus (ElasmobranchiiI: Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae), Off the Syrian Coast (Eastern Meditteranean) With First Description of Egg Case. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 42 (4), 335-339.

Ali, R. M. 1970. The influence of suspension density and temperature on the filtration rate of Hiatella arcticaMarine Biology6 (4), 291-302.

Allain, J-Y., 1974. Écologie des bancs d'Ophiothrix fragilis (Abildgaard) (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) dans le Golfe Normanno-Breton. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 15, 235-273.

Allain, J-Y. 1978. Age et croissance de Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck) et de Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) des côtes nord de Bretagne (Echinoidea). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 19, 11-21.

Allain, J.-Y., 1975. Structure des populations de Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck)(Echinodermata, Echinoidea) soumises a la peche sur les cotes nord de Bretagne. Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes, 39 (2), 171-212.

Allen, E.R. 1915. Polychaeta of Plymouth and the south Devon coast, including a list of the Archiannelida. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 10, 592-646.

Allen, H. 1990. 'Razor fish make £1600 a tonne'. Fishing News, 4018, 28-30.

Allen, J., Boyes, S., Burdon, D., Cutts, N., Hawthorne, E., Hemingway, K., Jarvis, S., Jennings, K., Mander, L., Murby, P., Proctor, N., Thomson, S. & Waters, R., 2003. The Humber Estuary: A Comprehensive Review of Its Nature Conservation Interest. English Nature Research Reports No. 547. English Nature, Peterborough.

Allen, J., Slinn, D., Shummon, T., Hurtnoll, R. & Hawkins, S., 1998. Evidence for eutrophication of the Irish Sea over four decades. Limnology and Oceanography, 43 (8), 1970-1974.

Allen, J.A. 1962. The fauna of the Clyde Sea area. Mollusca. Millport: Scottish Marine Biological Association.

Allen, J.A. 1953a. Observations on the epifauna of the deep-water muds of the Clyde Sea area, with special reference to Chlamys septemradiata (Müller). Journal of Animal Ecology, 22, 240-260.

Allen, J.A. 1953b. Observations on Nucula yurgida Marshall and Nucula moorei Winckworth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 31, 515-527.

Allen, J.A. 1954. A comparative study of British species of Nucula and Nuculana. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 33, 457-472.

Allen, J.A. 1960. On the biology of Crangon allmanni Kinahan in Northumberland waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 39, 481-508.

Allen, J.A., 2011. On the functional morphology of Pinna and Atrina larvae (Bivalvia: Pinnidae) from the Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 91 (4), 823-829. DOI

Allen, J.H., 2000. The analysis and prediction of the shallow subtidal benthic communities along the east coast of England. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hull.

Allen, P.L. 1983. Feeding behaviour of Asterias rubens (L.) on soft bottom bivalves: a study in selective predation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 70, 79-90.

Allen, P.L. & Moore, J.J. 1987. Invertebrate macrofauna as potential indicators of sandy beach instability. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 24, 109-125.

Allen, S.E. & Durrieu de Madron, X., 2009. A review of the role of submarine canyons in deep-ocean exchange with the shelf. Ocean Science, 5 (4), 607-620. DOI

Allen, T.R., 2012. The Effects of Ocean Acidification and Sea Surface Warming on the Embryonic Development of the Opistobranch Gastropod Stylocheilus striatus. Student Research Papers, Fall 2012, UC Berkeley

Allers, E., Abed, R.M., Wehrmann, L.M., Wang, T., Larsson, A.I., Purser, A. & de Beer, D., 2013. Resistance of Lophelia pertusa to coverage by sediment and petroleum drill cuttings. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 74 (1), 132-140. DOI

Allman, G.J., 1871-1872. A monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian hydroids, Vol. I & II. London: Ray Society.

Allmon, R.A. & Sebens, K.P., 1988. Feeding biology and ecological impact of an introduced nudibranch Tritonia plebia, New England, USA. Marine Biology, 99, 375-385.

Almada-Villela P.C., 1984. The effects of reduced salinity on the shell growth of small Mytilus edulis L. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom64, 171-182.

Almada-Villela, P.C., Davenport, J. & Gruffydd, L.L.D., 1982. The effects of temperature on the shell growth of young Mytilus edulis L. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 59, 275-288.

Almeda, R., Pedersen, T.M., Jakobsen, H.H., Alcaraz, M., Calbet, A. & Hansen, B.W., 2009. Feeding and growth kinetics of the planktotrophic larvae of the spionid polychaete Polydora ciliata (Johnston). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 382 (1), 61-68.

Alströem-Rapaport, C., Leskinen, E. & Pamilo, P., 2010. Seasonal variation in the mode of reproduction of Ulva intestinalis in a brackish water environment. Aquatic Botany, 93 (4), 244-249.

Althaus, F., Williams, A., Schlacher, T., Kloser, R., Green, M., Barker, B., Bax, N., Brodie, P. & Schlacher-Hoenlinger, M., 2009. Impacts of bottom trawling on deep-coral ecosystems of seamounts are long-lasting. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 397, 279-294. DOI

Altuna, A. & Poliseno, A., 2019. 14 Taxonomy, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mediterranean Deep-Sea Corals and Cold-Water Corals. In Orejas, C. and Jiménez, C. (eds.). Mediterranean Cold-Water Corals: Past, Present and Future: Understanding the Deep-Sea Realms of Coral, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 121-156

Alvarez, F. & Celis, A., 2004. On the occurrence of Conchoderma virgatum and Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Thoracica) on the sea snake, Pelamis platurus (Reptilia, Serpentes) in Jalisco, Mexico. Crustceana, 77, 761-764.

Alvarez, R.Z., 1968. Crustaceos Decapoda od Ibericos. Investigacion Pesquera, Barcelona, 32, 1-510.

Alve, E., 1991. Benthic foraminifera in sediment cores reflecting heavy metal pollution in Sorfjord, Western Norway. The Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 21 (1), 1-19.

Alves, S.N. & De Melo, A.L., 2013. Effects of benzodiazepine and ivermectin on Girardia tigrina (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria). Bioscience Journal, 29 (1), 209-215.

Ambariyanto & Seed, R. 1991. The infestation of Mytilus edulis Linnaeus by Polydora ciliata (Johnston) in the Conwy Estuary, North Wales. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 57, 413-424.

Ambo-Rappe, R., Lajus, D.L. & Schreider, M.J., 2011. Heavy metal impact on growth and leaf asymmetry of seagrass, Halophila ovalis. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 3 (6), 149-159. DOI

Ambrogi, A.O., 2000. Biotic invasions in a Mediterranean lagoon. Biological Invasions, 2 (2), 165-176.

Ambrose, W.G. Jr., 1993. Effects of predation and disturbance by ophiuroids on soft-bottom community structure in Oslofjord: results of a mesocosm study. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 97, 225-236.

Ambrose, W.G., 1984. Role of predatory infauna in structuring marine soft-bottom communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 17, 109-115.

Ambroso, S., Dominguez-Carrió, C., Grinyó, J., López-González, P., Gili, J.-M., Purroy, A., Requena, S. & Madurell, T., 2013. In situ observations on withdrawal behaviour of the sea pen Virgularia mirabilis. Marine Biodiversity, 43 (4), 257-258.

Amengual-Ramis, J.F., Vázquez-Archdale, M., Cánovas-Pérez, C. & Morales-Nin, B., 2016. The artisanal fishery of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas in Cabrera National Park, Spain: Comparative study on traditional and modern traps with trammel nets. Fisheries Research, 179, 23-32.

Ames. P., Wade. M., McKee. K., 2012. Didemnid Sea Squirts. NNSS, GB non-native species secretariat. Available:

Ameyaw-Akumfi, C. & Naylor, E., 1987. Spontaneous and induced components of salinity preference behaviour in Carcinus maenas. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 37, 153-158.

Amlund, H., Lundebye, A.K. & Berntssen, M.H.G., 2007. Accumulation and elimination of methylmercury in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) following dietary exposure. Aquatic Toxicology, 83(4), 323-330.

Amos, C., Li, M. & Sutherland, T., 1998. The contribution of ballistic momentum flux to the erosion of cohesive beds by flowing water. Journal of Coastal Research, 14 (2), 564-569.

Amos, C.L., Van Wagoner, N.A. & Daborn, G.R., 1988. The influence of subaerial exposure on the bulk properties of fine-grained intertidal sediment from Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 27 (1), 1-13.

Amsberry, L. Baker, M.A., Ewanchuk, P.J. & Bertness, M.D., 2000. Clonal integration and the expansion of Phragmites australis. Ecological Applications, 10, 1110-1118.

Amsler, C.D. & Searles, R.B., 1980. Vertical distribution of seaweed spores in a water column off shore of North Carolina. Journal of Phycology, 16, 617-619.

An, H.S., Lee, J.W. & Dong, C.M., 2012. Population genetic structure of Korean pen shell (Atrina pectinata) in Korea inferred from microsatellite marker analysis. Genes & Genomics, 34 (6), 681-688. DOI

Anadon, N., 1981. Contribucion al conocimiento de la fauna bentonica de la ria de Vigo [Espana], 3: Estudio de los arrecifes de Sabellaria alveolata (L.) (Polychaeta, Sedentaria). Investigación pesquera, v.45.

Anagnostou, E., Sherrell, R.M., Gagnon, A., LaVigne, M., Field, M.P. & McDonough, W.F., 2011. Seawater nutrient and carbonate ion concentrations recorded as P/Ca, Ba/Ca, and U/Ca in the deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75 (9), 2529-2543. DOI

Anala, J., 1974. Foraging strategies of two marine invertebrates. , Ph.D. thesis, University of New Hampshire, Durham, USA.

Anand, P.L., 1937a. A taxonomic study of the algae of British Chalk-cliffs. Journal of Botany, 75 (Supplement II), 1-51.

Anand, P.L., 1937b. An ecological study of the algae of the British chalk cliffs. Part I. Journal of Ecology, 25, 153-188.

Anand, P.L., 1937c. An ecological study of the algae of the British chalk cliffs. Part II. Journal of Ecology, 25, 344-367.

Andersen, A.C., Thibaud, Y. & Alzieu, C., 1984. Influence of the intermoult cycle on the metal bioaccumulation by the shrimp: Crangon crangon L. Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Peches Maritimes, 48, 155-160.

Andersen, F.S., 1962. The Norway lobster in Faeroe waters. Meddelelser fra Danmarks Fiskeri-og Havundersøgelser, New Series, 3, 265-326.

Andersen, G.S., 2013. Patterns of Saccharina latissima recruitment. Plos One, 8 (12), e81092.

Andersen, G.S., Pedersen, M.F. & Nielsen, S.L., 2013. Temperature, Acclimation and Heat Tolerance of photosynthesis in Norwegian Saccharina latissima (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology, 49 (4), 689-700.

Andersen, G.S., Steen, H., Christie, H., Fredriksen, S. & Moy, F.E., 2011. Seasonal patterns of sporophyte growth, fertility, fouling, and mortality of Saccharina latissima in Skagerrak, Norway: implications for forest recovery. Journal of Marine Biology, 2011, Article ID 690375, 8 pages.

Andersen, R.A., Kim, J.I., Tittley, I. & Yoon, H.S., 2014. A re-investigation of Chrysotila (Prymnesiophyceae) using material collected from the type locality. Phycologia, 53 (5), 463-473.

Anderson, A., 1971. Intertidal activity, breeding and the floating habit of Hydrobia ulvae in the Ythan estuary. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 51, 423-437.

Anderson, C.I.H. & Scott, G.W., 1998. The occurrence of distinct morphotypes within a population of Fucus spiralis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 78, 1003-1006.

Anderson, D.T. & Southward, A.J., 1987. Cirrial activity of barnacles. In Barnacle biology, (ed. A.J. Southward), pp. 135-174. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema. [Crustacean Issues no. 5.]

Anderson, D.T., 1994. Barnacles. Structure, function, development and evolution. Melbourne: Chapman & Hall.

Anderson, J.L. & Depledge, M.H., 1994. Arsenic accumulation in the shore crab Carcinus maenas: the influence of nutritional state, sex and exposure concentration. Marine Biology, 118, 285-292.

Anderson, O. F. & Clark, M. R., 2003. Analysis of bycatch in the fishery for orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus, on the South Tasman Rise. Marine and Freshwater Research, 54 (5), 643-652. DOI

Anderson, P.A., 2009. The functions of sound production in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus, and effects of loud ambient noise on its behavior and physiology in captive environments. Thesis, pp. Available from

Anderson, P.A., Berzins, I.K., Fogarty, F., Hamlin, H.J. & Guillette, L.J., 2011. Sound, stress, and seahorses: The consequences of a noisy environment to animal health. Aquaculture, 311 (1), 129-138. DOI

Anderson, R., Smit, A. & Levitt, G., 1999. Upwelling and fish-factory waste as nitrogen sources for suspended cultivation of Gracilaria gracilis in Saldanha Bay, South Africa. Hydrobiologia, 398, 455-462.

Anderson, S.J., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Taylor, A.C., 1991. Behavioural and respiratory adaptations of the mud-burrowing shrimp Calocaris macandreae Bell (Thalassinidea, Crustacea) to the burrow environment. Ophelia, 34, 143-156. DOI

Anderson, S.J., Taylor, A.C. & Atkinson, R.J.A., 1994. Anaerobic metabolism during anoxia in the burrowing shrimp Calocaris macandreae Bell (Crustacea: Thalassinidea). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 108A (4), 515-522. DOI

Anderson-Smith, W., 1887. Loch Creran: Notes from the West Highlands. Paisley.

Andersson, M.H., Berggren, M., Wilhelmsson, D. & Öhman, M.C., 2009. Epibenthic colonization of concrete and steel pilings in a cold-temperate embayment: a field experiment. Helgoland Marine Research, 63, 249-260.

André, C. & Lindegarth, M., 1995. Fertilization efficiency and gamete viability of a sessile, free-spawning bivalve, Cerastoderma edule. Ophelia, 43 (3), 215-227.

André, C. & Rosenberg, R., 1991. Adult-larval interactions in the suspension-feeding bivalves Cerastoderma edule and Mya arenaria. Marine Ecology Progress Series71 (3), 227-234.

André, M., Solé, M., Lenoir, M., Durfort, M., Quero, C., Mas, A., Lombarte, A., van der Schaar, M., López-Bejar, M., Morell, M., Zaugg, S. & Houégnigan, L., 2011. Low-frequency sounds induce acoustic trauma in cephalopods. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9, 489-493.

Andrake, W. & Johansen, H.W., 1980. Alizarin red dye as a marker for measuring growth in Corallina officinalis L. (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology, 16 (4), 620-622.

André, C., Jonsson, P.R. & Lindegarth, M., 1993. Predation on settling bivalve larvae by benthic suspension feeders: the role of hydrodynamics and larval behaviour. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 97, 183-192.

Andrew, N., Agatsuma, Y., Ballesteros, E., Bazhin, A., Creaser, E., Barnes, D., Botsford, L., Bradbury, A., Campbell, A. & Dixon, J., 2002. Status and management of world sea urchin fisheries. Oceanography and Marine Biology an Annual Review, 40, 343-425.

Andrew, N.L. & Viejo, R.M., 1998. Ecological limits to the invasion of Sargassum muticum in northern Spain. Aquatic Botany, 60 (3), 251-263. DOI

Andrews, J.W., Brand, A.R. & Holt, T.J., 2011. Isle of Man Queen Scallop Trawl and Dredge Fishery. MSC assessment report. pp. 203.

Aneiros, F., Rubal, M., Troncoso, J.S. & Bañón, R., 2015. Subtidal benthic megafauna in a productive and highly urbanised semi-enclosed bay (Ría de Vigo, NW Iberian Peninsula). Continental Shelf Research, 110, 16-24.

Anestis, A., Pörtner, H.O., Lazou, A. & Michaelidis, B., 2008. Metabolic and molecular stress responses of sublittoral bearded horse mussel Modiolus barbatus to warming sea water: implications for vertical zonation. 211 (17), 2889-2898. DOI

Ang, P. & De Wreede, R., 1992. Density-dependence in a population of Fucus distichus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 90, 169-181.

Ang, P., Sharp, G. & Semple, R., 1996. Comparison of the structure of populations of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) at sites with different harvesting histories. Hydrobiologia, 326 (1), 179-184.

Ang, P.O., Jr., 1991. Natural dynamics of a Fucus distichus (Phaeophyta, Fucales) population: reproduction and recruitment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 78, 71-85.

Angeletti, L., Mecho, A., Doya, C., Micallef, A., Huvenne, V., Georgiopoulou, A. & Taviani, M., 2015. First report of live deep-water cnidarian assemblages from the Malta Escarpment. Italian Journal of Zoology, 1-7. DOI

Anger, K., 1975a. Quantitative studies on indicator species and communities. Merentutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisau. Helsinki, 239, 116-122.

Anger, K., 1975b. On the influence of sewage pollution on inshore benthic communities in the south of Kiel Bay. Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 27, 408-438.

Anger, K., 1977. Benthic invertebrates as indicators of organic pollution in the western Baltic Sea. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie, 62, 245-254.

Anger, K., Rogal, U., Schriever, G. & Valentin, C., 1977. In-situ investigations on the echinoderm Asterias rubens as a predator of soft-bottom communities in the western Baltic Sea. Helgolander Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 29, 439-459.

Anger V., 1984. Reproduction in Pygospio-elegans Spionidae in relation to its geographical origin and to environmental conditions a preliminary report. Fischer, A. and H.-D. Pfannenstiel,  Fortschritte der Zoologie. pp. 45-52.

Angiolillo, M., Lorenzo, B.d., Farcomeni, A., Bo, M., Bavestrello, G., Santangelo, G., Cau, A., Mastascusa, V., Cau, A., Sacco, F. & Canese, S., 2015. Distribution and assessment of marine debris in the deep Tyrrhenian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 92 (1-2), 149-159. DOI

Ankel, W.E., 1937. Die feinere Bau des Kokons der Purpurschnecke Nucella lapillus (L.) und seine Bedeutung fur der Laichleben. Verhandlungen Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 39, 77-86.

Ankley, G.T., Erickson, R.J., Sheedy, B.R., Kosian, P.A., Mattson, V.R. & Cox, J.S., 1997. Evaluation of models for predicting the phototoxic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Aquatic Toxicology, 37, 37-50.

Anon, 1992. An experimental study on the impact of clam dredging on soft sediment macroinvertebrates. (Contractor: Southern Science, Hampshire Laboratory, Otterbourne, Hants.). Unpublished report to English Nature. (English Nature Research Report, No. 13).

Anonymous Accessed 16 January 2009. The Pink Seafan Website: Threats & Legislation. ,

Anonymous, 1999b. Native oyster (Ostrea edulis). Species Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999a. Anotrichium barbatum (a red alga). Species Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999c. Atrina fragilis (a fan shell). Species Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999d. Ivell's sea anemone, (Edwardsia ivelli). Species Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999f. Sunset cup coral (Leptopsammia pruvoti). Species Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999g. Northern hatchet shell (Thyasira gouldi). Species Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999h. Sea-fan anemone (Amphianthus dohrnii). Species Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999k. Starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis). Species Action Plan In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999l. Pink sea-fan (Eunicella verrucosa). Species Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999m. Sabellaria alveolata reefs. Habitat Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999n. Coastal saltmarsh. Habitat Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999o. Mudflats. Habitat Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999p. Seagrass beds. Habitat Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999q. Maerl beds. Habitat Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999s. Saline lagoons. Habitat Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1996. Species information. Softshell Clam Mya arenaria.[On-line]., 2000-10-19

Anonymous, 1999t. Ascophyllum nodosum ecad mackaii (a brown algae). Species Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1999v. Lamprothamnium papulosum. Species statement. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.,

Anonymous, 1999e. Small dolphins. Grouped Species Action Plan., 2002-01-25

Anonymous, 1999z. Harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Species Action Plan., 2001-07-09

Anonymous, 1999ii. Marine turtles. Grouped Species Action Plan, 2001-07-09

Anonymous, 2001. East Tennants Seafan Research Study [on-line] http//, 2001-07-10

Anonymous, 1999iii. UK Biodiversity Group: tranche 2 action plans: volume V- maritime species and habitats. , English Nature, Peterborough, UK.

Anonymous, 1999e. Littoral and sublittoral chalk., 2001-09-26

Anonymous, 1999u. Modiolus modiolus beds. Habitat Action Plan. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 1995. Reedbeds. A costed Habitat Action Plan. In Biodiversity: The UK Steering Group Report - Volume II: Action Plans (The UK Biodiversity Steering Group), pp. 230-232., London: HMSO

Anonymous, 1999iv. Lophelia pertusa reefs. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.,

Anonymous, 1999vi. Baleen whales. Grouped Species Action Plan., 2003-09-19

Anonymous, 1999vii. Common skate (Raja batis). Species Action Plan., 2004-01-20

Anonymous, 1999. Toothed whales. Grouped Species Action Plan., 2004-07-13

Anonymous, 1999r. Sabellaria spinulosa reefs. In UK Biodiversity Group. Tranche 2 Action Plans. English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough., English Nature for the UK Biodiversity Group, Peterborough.

Anonymous, 2007. Manx Wildlife Trusts: Basking shark watch - Exploitation, Law and Conservation.

Anonymous, 2002. Proposal 12.36 for amendment of Appendices I and II of CITES: Inclusion of the Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus) on Appendix II of CITES.

Anosov, S.E., 2000. Keys to the identification of brachyuran larvae of the Black Sea. Crustaceana, 73, 1239-1246.

Ansell, A. D. & Robb, L., 1977. The spiny lobster Palinurus elephas in Scottish waters. Marine Biology, 43, 63-70.

Ansell, A.D., 1969. Association of the amphipod Acidostoma neglectum Dahl with the anthozoan Peachia hastata Gosse. Journal of Natural History, 3, 345-347.

Ansell, A.D., 1995. Surface activity of some benthic invertebrate prey in relation to the foraging activity of juvenile flatfishes. In Proceedings of the 28th European Marine Biology Symposium, Institute of Marine Biology, Crete. 23-28 September 1993. Biology and Ecology of Shallow Coastal Waters (ed. A. Eleftheriou, A.D. Ansell & C.J. Smith), pp. 245-252. Fredensborg: Olsen & Olsen

Ansell, A.D., 1974. Seasonal change in biochemical composition of the bivalve Lima hians from the Clyde Sea area. Marine Biology, 27, 115-122.

Ansell, A.D., Barnett, P.R.O., Bodoy, A. & Masse, H., 1981. Upper temperature tolerances of some European Mollusca III. Cardium glaucum, C. tuberculata and C. edule. Marine Biology, 65, 177-183.

Ansell, A.D., Barnett, P.R.O., Bodoy, A. & Masse, H., 1980. Upper temperature tolerances of some European molluscs. 1. Tellina fabula and T. tenuis. Marine Biology, 58, 33-39.

Ansell, A.D., Dao, J. & Mason, J., 1991. Three European scallops: Pecten maximus, Chlamys (Aequipecten) opercularis and C. (Chlamys) varia. In Scallops: biology, ecology and aquaculture (ed. S.E. Shumway), pp. 715-751. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, no. 21.]

Ansín Agís, J., Ramil, F. & Vervoort, W., 2001. Atlantic Leptolida (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) of the families Aglaopheniidae, Halopterididae, Kirchenpaueriidae and Plumulariidae collected during the CANCAP and Mauritania-II expeditions of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, the Netherlands. Zoologische Verhandelingen, no. 233, 268 pp.

Anthony, K.R.N., 1997. Prey capture by the sea anemone Metridium senile (L.): effects of body size, flow regime, and upstream neighbors. Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 192, 73-86.

Anthony, P.D., 1981. Visual contrast thresholds in the cod Gadus morhua L. Journal of Fish Biology, 19(1), 87-103.

Antoniadou, C., Krestenitis, Y. & Chintiroglou, C., 2004. Structure of the “Amphioxus sand” community in Thermaikos bay (Eastern Mediterranean). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 13, 1122-1128.

Antoniadou, C., Voultsiadou, E. & Chintiroglou, C., 2010. Benthic colonization and succession on temperate sublittoral rocky cliffs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 382 (2), 145-153.

Antsulevich, A.Ye. & Starobogatov, Ya.I., 1991. First Record of a Nudibranch Mollusk (Tritoniformes) in the Caspian Sea. Hydrobiological Journal, 27, 71-74.

Anwar, N.A., Richardson, C.A. & Seed, R., 1990. Age determination, growth rate, and population structure of the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 70, 441-457.

Aoki, S., Cao, L., Matsui, K., Rachmat, R., Akiyama, S.-i. & Kobayashi, M., 2004. Kendarimide A, a novel peptide reversing P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in tumor cells, from a marine sponge of Haliclona sp. Tetrahedron, 60 (33), 7053-7059.

Appleby, A.G. & Brinkhurst, R.O., 1970. Defecation rate of three tubificid oligochaetes found in the sediment of Toronto Harbour, Ontario. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 27, 1971-1982.

Aprahamian, M.W., Aprahamian, C.D., Baglinière, J.L., Sabatié, R. & Alexandrino, P., 2003. Alosa alosa and Alosa fallax spp. Literature Review and Bibliography. R&D Technical Report W1-014/TR, Environment Agency

Apt, K.E., 1988. Etiology and development of hyperplasia induced by Streblonema sp. (Phaeophyta) on members of the Laminariales (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology, 24, 28-34.

Aquascope, 2000a. Green sea urchin. [on-line], 2000-09-21

Aquascope, 2000b. More about the sand goby. [On-line], 2001-02-22

Aquascope, 2000c. Rhizostome jellyfish - Rhizostome octopus., 2004-01-05

Arévalo, R., Pinedo, S. & Ballesteros, E. 2007. Changes in the composition and structure of Mediterranean rocky-shore communities following a gradient of nutrient enrichment: descriptive study and test of proposed methods to assess water quality regarding macroalgae. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 55(1), 104-113.

Araújo, R., Isabel, S.-P., Serrao, E.A. & Per, Å., 2012. Recovery after trampling disturbance in a canopy-forming seaweed population. Marine Biology, 159 (3), 697-707. DOI

Arafeh-Dalmau, N., Montaño-Moctezuma, G., Martínez, J.A., Beas-Luna, R., Schoeman, D.S. & Torres-Moye, G., 2019. Extreme Marine Heatwaves Alter Kelp Forest Community Near Its Equatorward Distribution Limit. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6 (499). DOI

Arai, M.N. & Walder, G.L., 1973. The feeding response of Pachycerianthus fimbriatus (ceriantharia). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, 44 (4), 1085-1092. DOI

Aranha, R., 2010. Geochemistry, microstructure and growth banding in Stylaster campylecus parageus and Primnoa pacifica: implications for commonly observed deep-sea corals as paleoceanographic archives. Masters Thesis, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 109 pp. 

Araújo, F.G., Williams, W.P. & Bailey, R.G., 2000. Fish assemblages as indicators of water quality in the middle Thames Estuary, England (1980-1989). Estuaries, 23, 305-317.

Araújo, R., Vaselli, S., Almeida, M., Serrão, E. & Sousa-Pinto, I., 2009. Effects of disturbance on marginal populations: human trampling on Ascophyllum nodosum assemblages at its southern distribution limit. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 378, 81-92. DOI

Archambault, P., Banwell, K. & Underwood, A., 2001. Temporal variation in the structure of intertidal assemblages following the removal of sewage. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 222, 51-62.

Archer, A.A., 1963. A new approach to the taxonomy of the branched members of the Cladophoraceae in the British Isles. , Ph.D. thesis, Liverpool University.

Archer, D. & Martin, P., 2001. Thin walls tell the tale. Science (Washington), 5549, 2108-2109.

Ardisson, P-L. & Bourget E. 1997. A study of the relationship between freshwater run-off and benthos abundance: a scale-oriented approach. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 45: 535-545.

Aréchiga, H. & Atkinson, R.J.A., 1975. The eye and some effects on locomotor activity in Nephrops norvegicus. Marine Biology, 32, 63-76.

Aréchiga, H., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Williams, J.A., 1980. Neurohumoral basis of circadian rhythmicity in Nephrops norvegicus (L.). Marine Behaviour and Physiology, 7, 185-197

Arenas, F., 2005. Wireweed (Japweed) Sargassum muticum. Marine Aliens project [On-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [1/1/2005] Available from:

Arenas, F., Bishop, J.D.D., Carlton, J.T., Dyrynda, P.J., Farnham, W.F., Gonzalez, D.J., Jacobs, M.W., Lambert, C., Lambert, G., Nielsen, S.E., Pederson, J.A., Porter, J.S., Ward, S. & Wood, C.A., 2006. Alien species and other notable records from a rapid assessment survey of marinas on the south coast of England. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 86, 1329-1337.

Arendse, M.C. & Barendregt, A., 1981. Magnetic orientation in the semi-terrestrial amphipod, Orchestia cavimana, and its interrelationship with photo-orientation and water loss. Physiological Entomology, 6 (4), 333-342.

Argyll Bird Club, 2017. Bird records for Argyll for the years 2002 and 2003. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-09-25.

Arias-Ortiz, A., Serrano, O., Masqué, P., Lavery, P.S., Mueller, U., Kendrick, G.A., Rozaimi, M., Esteban, A., Fourqurean, J.W., Marbà, N., Mateo, M.A., Murray, K., Rule, M.J. & Duarte, C.M., 2018. A marine heatwave drives massive losses from the world’s largest seagrass carbon stocks. Nature Climate Change, 8 (4), 338-344. DOI

ARKive 2008. British Birds., 2008-09-22

ARKive, Accessed 19 February 2009. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) Available from:

Armonies, W. & Reise, K., 1999. On the population development of the introduced razor clam Ensis americanus near the island of Sylt (North Sea). Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 52, 291-300.

Armonies, W., 1994. Drifting meio- and macrobenthic invertebrates on tidal flats in Königshafen: a review. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 48, 299-320.

Armonies, W., Buschbaum, C. & Hellwig-Armonies, M., 2013. The seaward limit of wave effects on coastal macrobenthos. Helgoland Marine Research, 68 (1), 1-16.

Armonies, W., Herre, E. & Sturm, M., 2001. Effects of the severe winter 1995 / 1996 on the benthic macrofauna of the Wadden Sea and the coastal North Sea near the island of Sylt. Helgoland Marine Research, 55, 170-175.

Armonies, W., Herre, E. & Sturm, M., 2001. Effects of the severe winter 1995/96 on the benthic macrofauna of the Wadden Sea and the coastal North Sea near the island of Sylt. Helgoland Marine Research, 55, (3), 170-175.

Armstrong R.A., 1994. The influence of bird droppings on the growth of lichen fragments transplanted to slate and cement substrates. Symbiosis, 17(1), 75-86.

Armstrong, M.J., Gerritsen, H.D., Allen, M., Mccurdy, W.J. & Peel, J.A.D., 2004. Variability in maturity and growth in a heavily exploited stock: cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Irish Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 61(1), 98-112.

Arnaud, F. & Bamber, R.N., 1987. The biology of Pycnogonida. Advances in Marine Biology, 24, 1-96.

Arnaud-Haond, S., Van den Beld, I.M.J., Becheler, R., Orejas, C., Menot, L., Frank, N., Grehan, A. & Bourillet, J.F., 2017. Two “pillars” of cold-water coral reefs along Atlantic European margins: Prevalent association of Madrepora oculata with Lophelia pertusa, from reef to colony scale. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 145, 110-119. DOI

Arndt, C. & Schiedek, D., 1997. Nephtys hombergii, a free living predator in marine sediments: energy production under environmental stress. Marine Biology, 129, 643-540.

Arndt, E.A., 1989. Ecological, physiological and historical aspects of brackish water fauna distribution. In Proceedings of the 23rd European Marine Biology Symposium, Swansea, 5-9 September 1988. Reproduction, Genetics and Distribution of Marine Organisms, (ed. J.S. Ryland & P.A. Tyler), pp. 327-338. Denmark: Olsen & Olsen.

Arndt, E.A., 1991. Ecological, physiological and historical aspects of brackish water fauna distribution. In: Estuaries and coasts: spatial and temporal intercomparisons. Estuarine and coastal sciences association 19th symposium, (ed. M. Elliot & J.P. Ducrotoy). Olsen & Olsen.

Arndt, E.A., 1984. The ecological niche of Cordylophora caspia (Pallas, 1771). Limnologica, 15, 469-477.

Arndt, E.A., 1973. Ecophysiological and adaptational problems confronting animals living in brackish water. Oikos, Suppl. 15, 239-245.

Arnold, D.C., 1957. The response of the limpet, Patella vulgata L., to waters of different salinities. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 36, 121-128.

Arnold, G.P., Walker, M.G., Emerson, L.S. & Holford, B.H., 1994. Movements of cod (Gadus morhua L.) in relation to the tidal streams in the southern North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 51(2), 207-232.

Arnold, M., Teagle, H., Brown, M.P. & Smale, D.A., 2016. The structure of biogenic habitat and epibiotic assemblages associated with the global invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida in comparison to native macroalgae. Biological Invasions, 18 (3), 661-676. DOI

Arnold, S.L. & Ormerod, S.J., 1997. Aquatic invertebrates and environmental gradients in Phragmites reed swamps: implications for conservation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 7, 153-163.

Arntz, W.E. & Rumohr, H., 1986. Fluctuations of benthic macrofauna during succession and in an established community. Meeresforschung, 31, 97-114.

Arntz, W.E. & Rumohr, H., 1973. Boring clams (Barnea candida (L.) and Zirfaea crispata (L.)) in Kiel Bay. Kiel Meeresforsch, 29, 141-143.

Arntz, W.E., 1980. Predation by demersal fish and its impact on the dynamics of macrobenthos. In Marine benthos dynamics, (eds. K.R. Tenore & B.C. Coull), pp. 121-149. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

Aronson, R.B. & Harms, C.A., 1985. Ophiuroids in a Bahamian saltwater lake: the ecology of a Palaeozoic-like community. Ecology, 66, 1472-1483.

Aronson, R.B., 1992. Biology of a scale-independent predator-prey relationship. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 89, 1-13.

Aronson, R.B., 1990. Onshore-offshore patterns of human fishing activity. Palaios, 5, 88-93.

Aronson, R.B., 1989. Brittlestar beds: low-predation anachronisms in the British Isles. Ecology, 70, 856-865.

Arrieche, D., Maeda-Martinez, A. N., Farias-Sanchez, J. A. & Saucedo, P. E., 2010. Biological performance of the penshell Atrina maura and mussel Mytella strigata under different water flow regimes. Ciencias Marinas, 36 (3), 237-248. DOI

Arrieche, D., Maeda-Martinez, A.N., Zenteno-Savin, T., Ascencio-Valle, F. & Farias-Sanchez, J.A., 2011. Scope for growth, biochemical composition, and antioxidant immune responses of the penshell Atrina maura to flow velocity and concentration of microalgae. Aquaculture, 319 (1-2), 211-220. DOI

Arrontes, J., 1993. Nature of the distributional boundary of Fucus serratus on the north shore of Spain. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 93, 183-183.

Arrontes, J., 2002. Mechanisms of range expansion in the intertidal brown alga Fucus serratus in northern Spain. Marine Biology, 141 (6), 1059-1067.

Arroyo, N.L., Maldonado, M. & Walters, K., 2006. Within-and between-plant distribution of harpacticoid copepods in a North Atlantic bed of Laminaria ochroleuca. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 86 (2), 309-316.

Arvy, L. & Nigrelli, R.F., 1969. Studies on the biology of barnacles: parasites of Balanus eburneus and B. balanoides from New York Harbour and a review of the parasites and diseases of other Cirripedia. Zoologica, 54, 95-103.

Arzel, P., 2000. Revue des causes de variations de l’abondance du champ de laminaires. Interactions des facteurs environnementaux et impacts sur les organismes vivants, Actes du colloque, Brest: An Aximandre: Lesneven, pp. 10-17.

Arzel, P., 2002. La laminaire digitée. Les nouvelles de l’Ifremer, 33 (4).

Arzel, P., 1998. Les laminaires sur les côtes bretonnes. Évolution de l'exploitation et de la flottille de pêche, état actuel et perspectives. Plouzané, France: Ifremer.

Arzul, I., Langlade, A., Chollet, B., Robert, M., Ferrand, S., Omnes, E., Lerond, S., Couraleau, Y., Joly, J.P., François, C. & Garcia, C., 2011. Can the protozoan parasite Bonamia ostreae infect larvae of flat oysters Ostrea edulis? Veterinary Parasitology, 179, 69-76.

Asch, R. G. & Collie, J. S., 2008. Changes in a benthic megafaunal community due to disturbance from bottom fishing and the establishment of a fishery closure. Fishery Bulletin, 106 (4), 438-456.

Ashelby, C., 2006. Record of the introduced amphipod Grandidierella japonica Stephensen 1938 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Gammaridea: Aoridae) from the Orwell estuary, Suffolk. Transactions of the Suffolk Natural History Society42, 48-54.

Ashworth, J.H., 1904. Arenicola (the lug-worm). Liverpool: Liverpool Marine Biology Committee. [L.M.B.C. Memoirs XI].

Askew, C.G., 1972. The growth of oysters, Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas in Emsworth harbour. Aquaculture, 1, 237-259.

Asmus, H. & Asmus, R., 2000a. ECSA - Workshop on intertidal seagrass beds and algal mats: organisms and fluxes at the ecosystem level. (Editorial). Helgoland Marine Research, 54, 53-54.

Asmus, H. & Asmus, R., 2000b. Material exchange and food web of seagrasses beds in the Sylt-Rømø Bight: how significant are community changes at the ecosystem level? Helgoland Marine Research, 54, 137-150.

Assis, J., Araújo, M.B. & Serrão, E.A., 2018. Projected climate changes threaten ancient refugia of kelp forests in the North Atlantic. Global Change Biology, 24 (1), e55-e66. DOI

Assis, J., Lucas, A.V., Bárbara, I. & Serrão, E.Á., 2016. Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea. Marine Environmental Research, 113, 174-182. DOI

Assis, J., Serrão, E.A., Claro, B., Perrin, C. & Pearson, G.A., 2014. Climate-driven range shifts explain the distribution of extant gene pools and predict future loss of unique lineages in a marine brown alga. Molecular Ecology, 23 (11), 2797-2810. DOI

Astall, C.A., Anderson, S.J. & Taylor, A.C., 1997. Comparative studies of the branchial morphology, gill area and gill ultrastructure of some thalassinidean mud-shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Thalassinidea). Journal of Zoology, 241, 665-688.

Astrup, J. & Møhl, B., 1993. Detection of intense ultrasound by the cod Gadus morhua. Journal of Experimental Biology, 182, 71-80.

Astthorsson, O.S. & Ralph, R., 1984. Growth and moulting of Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea). Marine Biology, 79, 55-61.

Astthorsson, O.S., 1980. The life history and ecological energetics of Neomysis integer (Leach) (Crustacea, Mysidacea). , Ph.D. thesis, University of Aberdeen.

Atalah, J. &  Crowe,T.P. (2012). Nutrient enrichment and variation in community structure on rocky shores: The potential of molluscan assemblages for biomonitoring. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 99: 162-170.

Atalah, J. & Crowe, T.P., 2010. Combined effects of nutrient enrichment, sedimentation and grazer loss on rock pool assemblages. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 388 (1), 51-57.

Atar, H.H. & Malal, S., 2010. Determination of bycatch and discard catch rates on trawl fishing in Mersin-Anamur fishing ground. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 8, 348-352.

Ateş, A.S., İşmen, A., Özeki̇nci̇, U. & Yiǧin, C.Ç.ǧ.E.r., 2005. A New Record of Munida rugosa (J. C. Fabricius, 1775) (Decapoda, Anomura, Galatheidae) from the Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey. Crustaceana, 78 (10), 1265-1267.

Atkins, D. & Rudwick, M.J.S., 1962. The lophophore and ciliary feeding mechanisms of the brachiopod Crania anomala (Müller). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 42, 469-480.

Atkins, D., 1934. Two parasites of the common cockle, Cardium edule; a rhabdocoel Paravortex cardii Halley and a copepod Paranthassius rstatus (Cann.). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 19, 669-676.

Atkinson, J., King, N., Wilmes, S.-B. & Moore, P., 2020. Summer and winter marine heatwaves favor an invasive over native seaweeds. Journal of Phycology, 56. DOI

Atkinson, P.W., Clark, N.A., Bell, M.C., Dare, P.J., Clark, J.A. & Ireland, P.L., 2003. Changes in commercially fished shellfish stocks and shorebird populations in the Wash, England. Biological Conservation, 114, 127-141.

Atkinson, R.J.A. & Nash, R.D.M., 1990. Some preliminary observations on the burrows of Callianassa subterranea (Montagu) (Decapoda: Thalassinidea) from the west coast of Scotland. Journal of Natural History, 24, 403-413.

Atkinson, R.J.A. & Taylor, A.C., 2005. Aspects of the physiology, biology and ecology of thalassinidean shrimps in relation to their burrow environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology - an Annual Review, Vol. 43, pp. 173-210.

Atkinson, R.J.A., 1989. Baseline survey of the burrowing megafauna of Loch Sween, proposed Marine Nature Reserve, and an investigation of the effects of trawling on the benthic megafauna. Report to the Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, from the University Marine Biological Station, Millport, pp.1-59.

Atkinson, R.J.A., 1988. The burrowing megafaunal communities of the upper arms of Loch Sween. Report to the Nature Conservancy Council, December 1987 (fieldwork undertaken between 21-27 June and 24-29 August 1987)., Unpublished, Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council. (NCC CSD Report 795).

Attrill, M.J. ed., 1998. A rehabilitated estuarine ecosystem: The environment and ecology of the Thames estuary. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.

Attrill, M.J. & Rundle, S.D., 2002. Ecotone or ecocline: Ecological boundaries in estuaries. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 55 (6), 929-936.

Attrill, M.J., 1990. The Thames estuary benthic programme: a site by site report of the quarterly macrofauna surveys April 1989 - March 1990. , Unpublished, National Rivers Authority, Thames Region Biology Report.

Attrill, M.J., Ramsay, P.M., Thomas, R.M. & Trett, M.W., 1996. An estuarine biodiversity hot-spot. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 76, 161-175.

Attrill, M.J., Wright, J. & Edwards, M., 2007. Climate-related increases in jellyfish frequency suggest a more gelatinous future for the North Sea. Limnology and Oceanography, 52 (1), 480-485. DOI

Auditore, P.J., Lough, R.G. & Broughton, E.A., 1994. A Review of the Comparative Development of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.) Based on an Illustrated Series of Larvae and Juveniles from Georges Bank. NAFO Science Council Studies, pp. 7-18., Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation.

Auker, L.A. & Oviatt, C.A., 2007. Observations on the colonization of the invasive tunicate Didemnum sp. in Rhode Island In Naturalist, 14, 1-4.

Auker, L.A. & Oviatt, C.A., 2008. Factors influencing the recruitment and abundance of Didemnum in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 65 (5), 765-769.

Aunaas, T., Denstad, J-P. & Zachariassen, K., 1988. Ecophysiological importance of the isolation response of hibernating blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Marine Biology 98: 415-9

Aurélio, M., Faleiro, F., Lopes, V.M., Pires, V., Lopes, A.R., Pimentel, M.S., Repolho, T., Baptista, M., Narciso, L. & Rosa, R., 2013. Physiological and behavioral responses of temperate seahorses (Hippocampus guttulatus) to environmental warming. Marine Biology, 160 (10), 2663-2670. DOI

Auscavitch, S. R., Lunden, J. J., Barkman, A., Quattrini, A. M., Demopoulos, A. W. J. & Cordes, E. E., 2020. Distribution of deep-water scleractinian and stylasterid corals across abiotic environmental gradients on three seamounts in the Anegada Passage. PeerJ, 8, e9523. DOI

Austen, M.C. & McEvoy, A.J., 1997. Experimental effects of tributyltin (TBT) contaminated sediment on a range of meiobenthic communities. Environmental Pollution, 96 (3), 435-444.

Austen, M.C. & Widdicombe, S., 1998. Experimental evidence of effects of the heart urchin Brissopsis lyrifera on associated meiobenthic nematode communities. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 222, 219-238.

Austen, M.C., Widdicombe, S. & Villano-Pitacco, N., 1998. Effects of biological disturbance on diversity and structure of meiobenthic nematode communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 174, 233-246.

Austin, A.P., 1960a. Life history and reproduction of Furcellaria fastigiata (L.) Lamouroux. Annals of Botany, New Series, 24, 257-274.

Austin, A.P., 1960b. Observations on the growth, fruiting and longevity of Furcellaria fastigiata (L.) Lamouroux. Hydrobiologia, 15, 193-207.

Austin, B. & Alderman, D.J., 1987. Bacterial shell disease of crustaceans. Identification leaflets for Diseases and Parasites of Fish and Shellfish, 31, 4 pp., ICES Copenhagen (Denmark).

Austin, W. C., Conway, K. W., Barrie, Vaughn J. & Krautter, M., 2007. Growth and morphology of a reef-forming glass sponge, Aphrocallistes vastus (Hexactinellida), and implications for recovery from widespread trawl damage. In Custódio, M.R. (ed.) Porifera Research: Biodiversity, Innovation and Sustainability, Brazil: Museu Nacional, pp. 684 [Museu Nacional, Serie LIvros, vol 28].

Available from: Accessed 19 February 2009. ICES- FishMap. Cod Gadus morhua. ,

Avant, P., 2006. Axinella damicornis Crumpled duster sponge. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K.. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Ax, P., 1993. Promesostoma species (Platyhelminthes, Rhabdocoela) from Greenland. Microfauna Marina, 8, 153-162.

Ax, P. & Armonies, W., 1990. Brackish water Plathelminthes from Alaska as evidence for the existence of a boreal brackish water community with circumpolar distribution. Microfauna Marina, 6, 7-109.

Axelsson, B. & Axelsson, L., 1987. A rapid and reliable method to quantify environmental effects on Laminaria based on measurements of ion leakage. Botanica Marina, 30, 55-61.

Axelsson, M., Allen, C., Dewey, S. , 2012. Survey and monitoring of seagrass beds at Studland Bay, Dorset – second seagrass monitoring report. Report to The Crown Estate and Natural England by Seastar Survey Ltd.

Axiak, V., George, J.J. & Moore, M.N., 1988. Petroleum hydrocarbons in the marine bivalve Venus verrucosa: accumulation and cellular responses. Marine Biology, 97, 225-230.

Ayari, A., Jelassi, R., Ghemari, C. & Nasri-Ammar, K., 2015. Locomotor activity patterns of two sympatric species Orchestia montagui and Orchestia gammarellus (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Biological Rhythm Research, 46 (6), 863-871.

Ayling, A.L., 1983. Factors affecting the spatial distributions of thinly encrusting sponges from temperate waters. Oecologia, 60 (3), 412-418.

Azevedo, C., 1997. Some observations on an amoeba, destructive agent of the gills of Cerastoderma edule (Mollusca, Bivalvia). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 30 (3), 223-225.

Azouzi, L., Bourget, E. & Borcard, D., 2002. Spatial variation in the intertidal bivalve Macoma balthica: biotic variables in relation to density and abiotic factors. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 234, 159-170.

Azzoni, R., Giordani, G., Bartoli, M., Welsh, D.T., Viaroli, P., 2001. Iron, sulphur and phosphorus cycling in the rhizophere sediments of a eutrophic Ruppia cirrhosa meadow (Valle Smarlacca, Italy). Journal of Sea Research, 45, 15-26.