Bibliography (A-Z)

Råberg, S., Nyström, M., Erös, M. & Plantman, P., 2003. Impact of the herbicides 2,4-D and diuron on the metabolism of the coral Porites cylindrica. Marine Environmental Research, 56 (4), 503-514. DOI

Rödström, E.M. & Jonsson, P.R., 2000. Survival and feeding activity of oyster spat (Ostrea edulis L) as a function of temperature and salinity with implications for culture policies on the Swedish west coast. Journal of Shellfish Research, 19, 799-808.

Rabalais, N.N., Harper, D.E. & Turner, R.E., 2001. Responses of nekton and demersal and benthic fauna to decreasing oxygen concentrations. In: Coastal Hypoxia Consequences for Living Resources and Ecosystems, (Edited by: Rabalais, N. N. and Turner, R. E.), Coastal and Estuarine Studies 58, American Geophysical Union, pp. 115–128. Washington D.C.

Rabanal, M., Ponce, N.M.A., Navarro, D.A., Gomez, R.M. & Stortz, C.A., 2014. The system of fucoidans from the brown seaweed Dictyota dichotoma: Chemical analysis and antiviral activity. Carbohydrate Polymers, 101, 804-811.

Rabaut, M., Braeckman, U., Hendrickx, F., Vincx, M. & Degraer, S., 2008. Experimental beam-trawling in Lanice conchilega reefs: Impact on the associated fauna. Fisheries Research, 90 (1), 209-216.

Rabaut, M., Guilini, K., Van Hoey, G., Vincx, M. & Degraer, S., 2007. A bio-engineered soft-bottom environment: The impact of Lanice conchilega on the benthic species-specific densities and community structure. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 75 (4), 525-536.

Rabaut, M., Van de Moortel, L., Vincx, M. & Degraer, S., 2010. Biogenic reefs as structuring factor in Pleuronectes platessa (Plaice) nursery. Journal of Sea Research, 64 (1), 102-106.

Rabaut, M., Vincx, M. & Degraer, S., 2009. Do Lanice conchilega (sandmason) aggregations classify as reefs? Quantifying habitat modifying effects. Helgoland Marine Research, 63 (1), 37-46.

Rachor, E. & Salzwedel, H. 1976. Studies on population dynamics and productivity of some bivalves in the German Bight. In Proceedings of the 10th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Volume 2: Population Dynamics (ed. G. Persoone & E. Jaspers), pp. 575-588. Wettern, Belgium: Universa Press

Rachor, E., 1976. Structure, dynamics and productivity of a population of Nucula nitidosa (Bivalvia, Protobranchiata) in the German Bight. Berichte der Deutschen Wissenschaftlichen Kommission fur Meeresforschung, 24, 296-331.

Raddatz, J., Titschack, J., Frank, N., Freiwald, A., Conforti, A., Osborne, A., Skornitzke, S., Stiller, W., Rüggeberg, A., Voigt, S., Albuquerque, A. L. S., Vertino, A., Schröder-Ritzrau, A. & Bahr, A., 2020. Solenosmilia variabilis-bearing cold-water coral mounds off Brazil. Coral Reefs, 39 (1), 69-83. DOI

Rademachere, K. & Kils, U., 1996. Predator/prey dynamics of fifteen-spined stickleback (Spinachia spinachia) and the mysid Neomysis integer. Archive for Fishery & Marine Research, 43, 171-181.

Radolović, M., Bakran-Petricioli, T., Petricioli, D., Surić, M. & Perica, D., 2015. Biological response to geochemical and hydrological processes in a shallow submarine cave. Mediterranean Marine Science, 16 (2), 305-324.

Raffaelli, D., 1982. Recent ecological research on some European species of Littorina. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 48 (3), 342-354.

Raffaelli, D., 1999. Nutrient enrichment and trophic organisation in an estuarine food web. Acta Oecologica, 20 (4), 449-461.

Raffaelli, D., 2000. Trends in research on shallow water food webs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 250 (1-2), 223-232.

Raffaelli, D., Falcy, V. & Galbraith, C., 1990. Eider predation and the dynamics of mussel bed communities. In Trophic relationships in the marine environment, (ed. M. Barnes & R.N. Gibson), pp. 157-169. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press.

Raffaelli, D., Limia, J., Hull, S. & Pont, S., 1991. Interactions between the amphipod Corophium volutator and macroalgal mats on estuarine mudflats. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 71, 899-908.

Raffaelli, D.G.  & Hawkins, S.J., 1999. Intertidal Ecology 2nd edn.. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Raffaelli, D.G. & Hawkins, S.J., 1996. Intertidal Ecology London: Chapman and Hall.

Raffaelli, D.G., Raven, J.A. & Poole, L.J., 1998. Ecological impact of green macroalgal blooms. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 36, 97-125.

Ragazzola, F., Foster, L.C., Form, A., Anderson, P.S.L., Hansteen, T.H. & Fietzke, J., 2012. Ocean acidification weakens the structural integrity of coralline algae. Global Change Biology, 18 (9), 2804-2812. DOI

Ragnarsson, S.Á. & Raffaelli, D., 1999. Effects of the mussel Mytilus edulis L. on the invertebrate fauna of sediments. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 241 (1), 31-43.

Ragnarsson, S.A. & Thorarinsdottir, G.G., 2002. Abundance of ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, assessed by underwater photography and a hydraulic dredge. Journal of Shellfish Research, 21 (2), 673-676.

Ragnarsson, S.Á., Burgos, J.M., Kutti, T., van den Beld, I., Egilsdóttir, H., Arnaud-Haond, S. & Grehan, A., 2016. The Impact of Anthropogenic Activity on Cold-Water Corals. In Rossi, S., Bramanti, L., Gori, A. and Orejas, C. (eds.). Marine Animal Forests. : Springer International Publishing, pp. 1-35.

Ragnarsson, S.A., Thorarinsdottir, G.G. & Gunnarsson, K., 2015. Short and long-term effects of hydraulic dredging on benthic communities and ocean quahog (Arctica islandica) populations. Marine Environmental Research, 109, 113-123.

Ragueneau, O., Raimonet, M., Maze, C., Coston-Guarini, J., Chauvaud, L., Danto, A., Grall, J., Jean, F., Paulet, Y. M. & Thouzeau, G., 2018. The Impossible Sustainability of the Bay of Brest? Fifty Years of Ecosystem Changes, Interdisciplinary Knowledge Construction and Key Questions at the Science-Policy-Community Interface. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5. DOI

Rai, L., Gaur, J.P. & Kumar, H.D., 1981. Phycology and heavy-metal pollution. Biological Reviews, 56, 99-151.

Raimundo, J., Vale, C., Caetano, M., Anes, B., Carreiro-Silva, M., Martins, I., Matos, V. de & Porteiro, F.M., 2013. Element concentrations in cold-water gorgonians and black coral from Azores region. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 98, 129-136. DOI

Rainbow, P. S. & Phillips, D. J. H., 1993. Cosmopolitan biomonitors of trace-metals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26 (11), 593-601. DOI

Rainbow, P.S. & Moore, P.G., 1990. Seasonal variation in copper and zinc concentrations in three talitrid amphipods (Crustacea). Hydrobiologia, 196, 65-72.

Rainbow, P.S., 1984. An introduction to the biology of British littoral barnacles. Field Studies, 6, 1-51.

Rainbow, P.S., 1987. Heavy metals in barnacles. In Barnacle biology. Crustacean issues 5 (ed. A.J. Southward), 405-417. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Rainbow, P.S., Fialkowski, W. & Smith, B.D., 1998. The sand hopper Talitrus saltator as a trace metal biomonitor in the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36, 193-200.

Rainbow, P.S., Moore, P.G. & Watson, D., 1989. Talitrid amphipods (Crustacea) as biomonitors for copper and zinc. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 28, 567-582.

Rainbow, Philip S., 2002. Trace metal concentrations in aquatic invertebrates: why and so what?. Environmental Pollution, 120 (3), 497-507. DOI

Rainer, S.F., 1989. Redescription of Nephtys assimilis and Nephtys kersivalensis (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida) and a key to Nephtys from northern Europe. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 45, 875-889.

Rainer, S.F., 1990. The genus Nephtys (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida) of northern Europe: redescription of N. hystricis and N. incisa. Journal of Natural History, 24, 361-372.

Rainer, S.F., 1991. The genus Nephtys (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida) of northern Europe: a review of species, including the description of N. pulchra sp. n. and a key to the Nephtyidae. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 45, 65-96.

Rainer, S.F., 1985. Population dynamics and production of the bivalve Abra alba and implications for fisheries production. Marine Biology, 85, 253-262.

Rajagopal, S., Venugopalan, V.P., Van der Velde, G. & Jenner, H.A., 2003. Tolerance of five species of tropical marine mussels to continuous chlorination. Marine Environmental Research, 55 (4), 277-291. DOI

Rajagopal, S., Venugopalan, V.P., van der Velde, G. & Jenner, H.A., 2006. Control of modiolid mussels in cooling water systems by continuous chlorination. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 51 (2), 215-222. DOI

Rakka, M., Orejas, C., Sampaio, I., Monteiro, J., Parra, H. & Carreiro-Silva, M., 2017. Reproductive biology of the black coral Antipathella wollastoni (Cnidaria: Antipatharia) in the Azores (NE Atlantic). Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 145, 131-141. DOI

Ralph, P. J. & Burchett, M. D., 1998. Photosynthetic response of Halophila ovalis to heavy metal stress. Environmental Pollution, 103 (1), 91-101. DOI

Ralph, P. J. & Burchett, M. D., 1998b. Impact of petrochemicals on the photosynthesis of Halophila ovalis using chlorophyll fluorescence. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36 (6), 429-436. DOI

Ralph, R., 1965. Some aspects of the ecology and osmotic regulation of Neomysis integer Leach. , Ph.D. thesis, Southampton University.

Ramachandran, S., Rajendran, N, Nandakumar, R. & Venugopalan, V.K., 1984. Effect of pesticides on photosynthesis and respiration of marine macrophytes. Aquatic Botany, 19, 395-400.

Ramakritinan, C. M., Chandurvelan, Rathishri & Kumaraguru, A. K., 2012. Acute Toxicity of Metals: Cu, Pb, Cd, Hg and Zn on Marine Molluscs, Cerithedia cingulata G., and Modiolus philippinarum H. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, 41 (2), 141-145.

Ramalho, L.V., LÓPez-FÉ, C.M., Mateo-RamÍrez, A. & Rueda, JosÉ L., 2020. Bryozoa from deep-sea habitats of the northern Gulf of Cádiz (Northeastern Atlantic). Zootaxa, 4768 (4), 451–478. DOI

Raman, A.V. & Ganapati, P.N., 1983. Pollution effects on ecobiology of benthic polychaetes in Visakhapatnam Harbour (Bay of Bengal). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14, 46-52.

Ramirez-Llodra, E., 2002. Fecundity and life-history strategies in marine invertebrates. Advances in marine biology, 43, 87-170. DOI

Ramirez-Llodra, E., Tyler, P.A., Baker, M.C., Bergstad, O.A., Clark, M.R., Escobar, E., Levin, L.A., Menot, L., Rowden, A.A., Smith, C.R. & Van Dover, C.L., 2011. Man and the Last Great Wilderness: Human Impact on the Deep Sea. PLoS ONE, 6 (8), e22588.

Ramiro-Sanchez, B., Gonzalez-Irusta, J. M., Henry, L. A., Cleland, J., Yeo, I., Xavier, J. R., Carreiro-Silva, M., Sampaio, I., Spearman, J., Victorero, L., Messing, C. G., Kazanidis, G., Roberts, J. M. & Murton, B., 2019. Characterization and Mapping of a Deep-Sea Sponge Ground on the Tropic Seamount (Northeast Tropical Atlantic): Implications for Spatial Management in the High Seas. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6. DOI

Ramos, M., 2010. IBERFAUNA. The Iberian Fauna Databank, 2015(2015/12/21).

Ramsay, A., Davidson, J., Bourque, D. & Stryhn, H., 2009. Recruitment patterns and population development of the invasive ascidian Ciona intestinalis in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Aquatic Invasions, 4 (1), 169-176.

Ramsay, A., Davidson, J., Landry, T. & Stryhn, H., 2008. The effect of mussel seed density on tunicate settlement and growth for the cultured mussel, Mytilus edulis. Aquaculture, 275 (1), 194-200.

Ramsay, K., & Holt, R.H.F., 2001. Mantis shrimps Rissoides desmaresti in Tremadog Bay, North Wales. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 81, 695-696.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J. & Hughes, R.N. 1998. The responses of benthic scavengers to fishing disturbance by towed gears in different habitats. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 224, 73-89.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J. & Hughes, R.N., 1996. Changes in hermit crab feeding patterns in response to trawling disturbance. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 144, 63-72.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J., Moore, P.G. & Hughes, R.N. 1997. Consumption of fisheries discards by benthic scavengers: utilisation of energy subsidies in different marine habitats. Journal of Animal Ecology, 66, 884-896.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J., Richardson, C.A., Veale, L.O. & Brand, A.R., 2000b. Can shell scars on dog cockles (Glycymeris glycymeris L.) be used as an indicator of fishing disturbance ? Journal of Sea Research, 43, 167-176.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J., Rijnsdorp, A.D., Craeymeersch, J.A. & Ellis, J., 2000. Impact of trawling on populations of the invertebrate scavenger Asterias rubens. In Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats, (ed. M.J. Kaiser & S.J. de Groot), pp151-162. Tunbridge Wells: Blackwell Science Ltd.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J., Rijnsdorp, S.D., Craeymeersch, J.A. & Ellis, J., 2000. Impact of trawling on populations of the invertebrate scavenger Asterias rubens. In Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats. Biological, conservation and socio-economic issues (ed. M.J. Kaiser & S.J. de Groot), pp. 151-162.

Ramus, J., Beale, S.I. & Mauzerall, D., 1976. Correlation of changes in pigment content with photosynthetic capacity of seaweeds as a function of water depth. Marine Biology, 37 (3), 231-238.

Ramus, J., Lemons, F. & Zimmerman, C., 1977. Adaptation of light-harvesting pigments to downwelling light and the consequent photosynthetic performance of the eulittoral rockweeds Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus. Marine Biology, 42, 293-303.

Ranade, M.R., 1957. Observations on the resistance of Tigriopus fulvus (Fischer) to changes in temperature and salinity. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 36, 115-119.

Rankin, C.J. & Davenport, J.A., 1981. Animal Osmoregulation. Glasgow & London: Blackie. [Tertiary Level Biology].

Ranwell, D.S., 1972. Ecology of saltmarshes and sand dunes. London: Chapman & Hall Ltd.

Ranwell, D.S., 1968. Lichen mortality due to 'Torrey Canyon' oil and decontamination measures. Lichenologist, 4, 55-56.

Ranwell, D.S., Wyer, D.W., Boorman, L.A., Pizzey, J.M. & Waters, R.J., 1974. Zostera transplants in Norfolk and Suffolk, GB. Aquaculture, 4, 185-198

Rasmussen, A. D. & Andersen, O., 2000. Effects of cadmium exposure on volume regulation in the lugworm, Arenicola marina. Aquatic Toxicology, 48 (2-3), 151-164. DOI

Rasmussen, A.D., Banta, G.T. & Anderson, O., 1998. Effects of bioturbation by the lugworm Arenicola marina on cadmium uptake and distribution in sandy sediments. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 164, 179-188.

Rasmussen, A.D., Krag, A., Bjerregaard, P., Weeks, J.M. & Depledge, M.H., 1995. The effects of trace metals on the apparent water permeability of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) and the brown shrimp Crangon crangon. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31, 60-62.

Rasmussen, E., 1973. Systematics and ecology of the Isefjord marine fauna (Denmark). Ophelia, 11, 1-507.

Rasmussen, E., 1977. The wasting disease of eelgrass (Zostera marina) and its effects on environmental factors and fauna. In Seagrass ecosystems - a scientific perspective, (ed. C.P. McRoy, & C. Helfferich), pp. 1-51.

Ratcliffe, P.J., Jones, N.V. & Walters, N.J., 1981. The survival of Macoma balthica (L.) in mobile sediments. In Feeding and survival strategies of estuarine organisms (ed. N.V. Jones and W.J. Wolff), pp. 91-108. Plenum Press.

Rätz, H.-J. & Lloret, J., 2003. Variation in fish condition between Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks, the effect on their productivity and management implications. Fisheries Research, 60, 369-380.

Rauck, G., 1988. What influence have bottom trawls on the seafloor and bottom fauna? Informationen fur die Fischwirtschaft, Hamberg, 35, 104-106.

Raveen, R., Samuel, V. & Samuel, T., 2016. Disappearance of Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas) from Pulicat lake area, Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, 3 (1), 55-57.

Raven, J. G. M., 2022. Expansion of Crepidula fornicata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) in the North Sea drives the species into new niches. Nautilus, 136 (3-4), 56-62.

Raventos, N., Macpherson, E. & García-Rubiés, A., 2006. Effect of brine discharge from a desalination plant on macrobenthic communities in the NW Mediterranean. Marine Environmental Research, 62 (1), 1-14. DOI

Ravera, S., Falugi, C., Calzia, D., Pepe, I. M., Panfoli, I. & Morelli, A., 2006. First cell cycles of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus are dramatically impaired by exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field. Biology of Reproduction, 75 (6), 948-953. DOI

Ray, G.L., 2005. Invasive marine and estuarine animals of the Pacific northwest and Alaska. DTIC Document.

Raybaud, V., Beaugrand, G., Goberville, E., Delebecq, G., Destombe, C., Valero, M., Davoult, D., Morin, P. & Gevaert, F., 2013. Decline in kelp in west Europe and climate. Plos One, 8 (6), e66044.

Rayment W.J., 2007. Crepidula fornicata. Slipper limpet. [online]. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [On-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.  Available from: <>

Rayment, W.J. 2007a. Aphelochaeta marioni A bristleworm. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Rayment, W.J. 2007b. Magelona mirabilis A polychaete. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Rayment, W.J. 2006. Fabulina fabula and Magelona mirabilis with venerid bivalves and amphipods in infralittoral compacted fine muddy sand. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Raymont, J.E.G., 1950. A fish cultivation experiment in an arm of a sea loch. IV. The bottom fauna of Kyle Scotnish. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (B), 64, 65-108.

Raymont, J.E.G., 1955. The fauna of an intertidal mud flat. Deep Sea Research, Supplement 3, 178-203.

Read, G.B. & Gordon, D.P. 1991. Adventive occurrence of the fouling serpulid Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Polychaeta) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 25(3), 269-273.

Read, K.R.H. & Cumming, K.B., 1967. Thermal tolerance of the bivalve molluscs Modiolus modiolus (L.), Mytilus edulis (L.) and Brachidontes demissus (Dillwyn). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 22, 149-155.

Read, K.R.H. & Cumming, K.B., 1967. Thermal tolerance of the bivalve mollusc Modiolus modiolus (L.), Mytilus edulis (L.) and Brachiodontes demissus (Dillwyn). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 22, 149-155.

Read, P.A., Anderson, K.J., Matthews, J.E., Watson, P.G., Halliday, M.C. & Shiells, G.M., 1983. Effects of pollution on the benthos of the Firth of Forth. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 14, 12-16.

Read, P.A., Anderson, K.J., Matthews, J.E., Watson, P.G., Halliday, M.C. & Shiells, G.M., 1982. Water quality in the Firth of Forth. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 13, 421-425.

Readman, J.A.J., 2018. Deep sponge communities. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds). Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth:Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Readman, J.A.J. & Hiscock, K. 2017. Eunicella verrucosa Pink sea fan. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Reay, P.J., 1970. Synopsis of biological data on North Atlantic sandeels of the genus Ammodytes. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN Report 82.

Rebello, J., Ohno, M., Critchley, A. & Sawamura, M., 1996. Growth rates and agar quality of Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft from Namibia, Southern Africa. Botanica Marina, 39 (1-6), 273-280.

Record, 2017. RECORD Aves Data. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-01.

Record, 2018. RECORD Freshwater Fish Data. Occurrence dataset accessed via on 2018-10-01

Record, 2017. RECORD Mammal Data. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-02.

Record, 2017. RECORD Vascular Plant Data. Occurrence dataset accessed via on 2018-10-02.

Red List Standards & Petitions Subcommittee, 1996. Eretmochelys imbricata. In: IUCN 2006.,

Redman, C.M., 1985. Effect of temperature and salinity on the life history of Capitella capitata (type I). Dissertation Abstracts, 46, 91.

Redmond, S. 2013. Effects of Increasing Temperature and Ocean Acidification on the Microstages of two Populations of Saccharina latissima in the Northwest Atlantic. Master of Science,  University of Connecticut.

Reed, B.J. & Hovel, K.A., 2006. Seagrass habitat disturbance: how loss and fragmentation of eelgrass Zostera marina influences epifaunal abundance and diversity Marine Ecology Progress Series, 326, 133-143.

Reed, C.G., 1991. Bryozoa. In Reproduction of marine invertebrates, vol. VI. Echinoderms and Lophophorates (ed. A.C. Geise, J.S. Pearse & V.B. Pearse), pp. 85-245. California: Boxwood Press.

Reed, D.C., 1990. The effects of variable settlement and early competition on patterns of kelp recruitment. Ecology, 71, 776-787.

Reed, D.C., Rassweiler, A. & Arkema, K.K., 2008. Biomass rather than growth rate determines variation in net primary production by giant kelp. Ecology and evolution, 89, 2493-2505

Reed, R. H., Collins, J.C. & Russell, G., 1980. The influence of variations in salinity upon photosynthesis in the marine alga Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C. Ag. (Rhodophyta, Bangiales). Z. Pflanzenphysiology, 98, 183-187.

Reed, R.H. & Russell, G., 1979. Adaptation to salinity stress in populations of Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 8, 251-258.

Reed, R.H. & Russell, G., 1978. Salinity fluctuations and their influence on "bottle brush" morphogenesis in Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link. British Phycological Journal, 13, 149-153.

Rees, C.B., 1954. Continuous Plankton Records: The decapod larvae in the North Sea, 1947-1949. Hull Bulletin of Marine Ecology, 3, 157-184.

Rees, E., Nicolaidou, A. & Laskaridou, P., 1976. The effects of storms on the dynamics of shallow water benthic associations. In Proceedings of the 11th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Galway, 5-11 October, 1976. Biology of benthic organisms (ed. B.F., Keegan; P., O'Ceidigh & P.J.S., Boaden), pp. 465-474.

Rees, E.I.S. & Walker, A.J.M., 1983. Annual and spatial variation in the Abra community in Liverpool Bay. Oceanologica Acta, Special issue (0399-1784), 165-169.

Rees, E.I.S., 2003. Aspects of ecology and distribution of the hermit crab Diogenes pugilator. Newsletter. Porcupine Marine Natural History Society, 12, 36-39

Rees, E.I.S., 1978. Observations on the ecological effects of pipeline construction across the Lafan Sands. Report from University College of North Wales, Marine Science Laboratories, Menai Bridge. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, CSD Report, No. 188 (Benthos Research Report, No. 78-1.)

Rees, E.I.S., Nicholaidou, A. & Laskaridou, P., 1977. The effects of storms on the dynamics of shallow water benthic associations. In Proceedings of the 11th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Galway, Ireland, October 5-11, 1976. Biology of Benthic Organisms, (ed. B.F. Keegan, P. O'Ceidigh & P.J.S. Boaden), pp. 465-474.

Rees, E.I.S., Sanderson, W.G., Mackie, A.S.Y. & Holt, R.H.F., 2008. Small-scale variation within a Modiolus modiolus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) reef in the Irish Sea. III. Crevice, sediment infauna and epifauna from targeted cores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 88 (01), 151-156.

Rees, H., Rowlatt, S., Lambert, M., Lees, R. & Limpenny, D., 1992. Spatial and temporal trends in the benthos and sediments in relation to sewage sludge disposal off the northeast coast of England. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 49 (1), 55-64.

Rees, H.L. & Dare, P.J., 1993. Sources of mortality and associated life-cycle traits of selected benthic species: a review. MAFF Fisheries Research Data Report, no. 33., Lowestoft: MAFF Directorate of Fisheries Research.

Rees, H.L., Waldock, R., Matthiessen, P. & Pendle, M.A., 2001. Improvements in the epifauna of the Crouch estuary (United Kingdom) following a decline in TBT concentrations. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 137-144. DOI

Rees, H.L., Waldock, R., Matthiessen, P. & Pendle, M.A., 1999. Surveys of the epibenthos of the Crouch Estuary (UK) in relation to TBT contamination. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 79, 209-223. DOI

Rees, I., 2009. Assessment of Modiolus modiolus beds in the OSPAR area. Prepared on behalf of Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Rees, T.K., 1932. A note on the longevity of certain species of the Fucaceae. Annals of Botany, 4,1062-1064.

Rees, W.J., 1962. The distribution of the coral Caryophyllia smithii and the barnacle Pyrgoma anglicum in British waters. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Zoology), 9, 401-418.

Reeve, A., 2005. Axinella infundibuliformis Prawn cracker sponge. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K.. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth:Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Reeves, S., 1994. Seasonal and annual variation in catchability of sandeels at Shetland. ICES Council Meeting Papers D:19, 1-19.

Reeves, S.A., Armstrong, D.W., Fryer, R.J. & Coull, K.A., 1992. The effects of mesh size, cod-end extension length and cod-end diameter on the selectivity of Scottish trawls and seines. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 49(3), 279-288.

Regnault, M., 1994. Effect of air exposure on ammonia excretion and ammonia content of branchial water of the crab Cancer pagurus. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 268, 208-217.

Regnault, M., 1992. Effect of air exposure on nitrogen metabolism in the crab Cancer pagurus. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 264, 372-380.

Reichelt-Brushett, A.J. & Harrison, P.L., 2004. Development of a Sublethal Test to Determine the Effects of Copper and Lead on Scleractinian Coral Larvae. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 47 (1), 40-55. DOI

Reichelt-Brushett, A.J. & Harrison, P.L., 2005. The effect of selected trace metals on the fertilization success of several scleractinian coral species. Coral Reefs, 24 (4), 524-534. DOI

Reichelt-Brushett, A.J. & Harrison, P.L., 1999. The Effect of Copper, Zinc and Cadmium on Fertilization Success of Gametes from Scleractinian Reef Corals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38 (3), 182-187. DOI

Reichelt-Brushett, A.J. & Harrison, P.L., 2000. The Effect of Copper on the Settlement Success of Larvae from the Scleractinian Coral Acropora tenuis. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 41 (7), 385-391. DOI

Reichelt-Brushett, A.J. & Michalek-Wagner, K., 2005. Effects of copper on the fertilization success of the soft coral Lobophytum compactum. Aquatic Toxicology, 74 (3), 280-284. DOI

Reid, D.G., 1996. Systematics and evolution of Littorina. The Ray Society, London.

Reid, D.G., Abello, P. & Warman, C., 1992. Size and assortative mating in the shore crab Carcinus maenas. First European Crustacean Conference, Paris, August 31-September 5, 1992, Abstracts., MNHN, Paris (France), 124-125.

Reid, D.G., Abello, P., Warman, C.G. & Naylor, E., 1994. Size-related mating success in the shore crab Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Brachyura). Journal of Zoology, 232, 397-407.

Reid, D.M., 1935. The range of the sea-urchin Echinus esculentus. Journal of Animal Ecology, 4, 7-16.

Reid, D.M., 1947. Talitridae (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

Reid, D.M., 1940. On Gammarus (Pectenogammarus) planicrurus subgen, et sp., n., Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series II), 6, 287.

Reid, D.M., 1944. Gammaridae (Amphipoda); with key to the families of British Gammaridea. Synopses of British Fauna, 3, 1-33.

Reid, G., Liutkus, M., Bennett, A., Robinson, S., MacDonald, B. & Page, F., 2010. Absorption efficiency of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus) feeding on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed and fecal particulates: implications for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. Aquaculture, 299 (1), 165-169.

Reid, R.G.B. & Brand, D.G., 1989. Giant kidneys and metal - sequestering nepholiths in the bivalve Pinna bicolor, with comparative notes on Atrina vexillum (Pinnidae Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 126, 95-117.

Reid. J.B., Evans. P.G.H., Northridge. S.P. (ed.), 2003. Atlas of Cetacean Distribution in North-west European Waters. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Reidy, S. 1996. Comparison of associations of the nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa with two sea anemones Urticina crassicornis and Metridium senile. In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Benthic Ecology Meeting, Columbia, South Carolina, March 7-10, 1996 (ed. S.A. Woodin et al.), pp. 68.

Reidy, S.P., Kerr, S.R. & Nelson, J.A., 2000. Aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of individual Atlantic Cod. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 347-357.

Reigl, B., 1995. Effects of sand deposition on scleractinian and alcyonacean corals. Marine Biology, 121, 517-526.

Reinhardt, J.F., Stefaniak, L.M., Hudson, D.M., Mangiafico, J., Gladych, R. & Whitlatch, R.B., 2010. First record of the non-native light bulb tunicate Clavelina lepadiformis (Müller, 1776) in the northwest Atlantic. Aquatic Invasions, 5 (2), 185-190.

Reise, K., 2005. Coast of change: habitat loss and transformations in the Wadden Sea. Helgoland Marine Research, 59 (1), 9-21.

Reise, K., 1982. Long-term changes in the macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of the Wadden Sea: are polychaetes about to take over?. Netherlands journal of sea research16, 29-36.

Reise, K. & Buhs, F., 1999. Reply to the comment of Damm and Neudecker (1999): long-term decline in epibenthic fauna of tidal channels near the island of Sylt in the northern Wadden Sea. Helgoland Marine Research, 53 (2), 143-145.

Reise, K. & Lackschewitz, D., 1998. Benthos des Wattenmeeres zwischen Sylt und Rømø. Ökosystem Wattenmeer: Austausch-, Transport-und Stoffumwandlungsprozesse (Ch Gätje, K Reise, Hrsg), pp.55-62, Springer, Berlin.

Reise, K., 1987. Spatial niches and long-term performance in meiobenthic Platyhelminthes of an intertidal lugworm flat. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 38, 1-11.

Reise, K., 1979. Spatial configurations generated by motile benthic polychaetes. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 32, 55-72.

Reise, K., 1977. Predator exclusion experiments in an intertidal mud flat. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 30, 263-271.

Reise, K., 1985. Tidal flat ecology. An experimental approach to species interactions. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Reise, K., 1983. Sewage, green algal mats anchored by lugworms, and the effects on Turbellaria and small Polychaeta. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 36, 151-162.

Reise, K., 1978. Experiments on epibenthic predation in the Wadden Sea. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 30, 263-271.

Reise, K., Bouma, T.J., Olenin, S. & Ysebaert, T., 2009. Coastal habitat engineers and the biodiversity in marine sediments. Helgoland Marine Research, 63 (1),1-2.

Reise, K., Buschbaum, C., Lackschewitz, D., Thieltges, D.W., Waser, A.M. & Wegner, K.M., 2023. Introduced species in a tidal ecosystem of mud and sand: curse or blessing? Marine Biodiversity, 53 (1). DOI

Reise, K., Gollasch, S. & Wolff, W.J., 1999. Introduced species of the North Sea coasts. Helgoland Meeresuntersuchungen, 52, 219-234.

Reise, K., Herre, E. & Sturm, M., 2008. Mudflat biota since the 1930s: change beyond return? Helgoland Marine Research, 62 (1), 13-22.

Reise, K., Herre, E., & Sturm, M. 1989. Historical changes in the benthos of the Wadden Sea around the island of Sylt in the North Sea. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 43, 417-433.

Reise, K., Simon, M. & Herre, E., 2001. Density-dependent recruitment after winter disturbance on tidal flats by the lugworm Arenicola marina. Helgoland Marine Research, 55(3), 161-165.

Reise, R. & Schubert, A., 1987. Macrobenthic turnover in the subtidal Wadden Sea: the Norderaue revisited after 60 years. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 41, 69-82.

Reish, D.J., 1979. Bristle Worms (Annelida: Polychaeta) In Pollution Ecology of Estuarine Invertebrates, (eds. Hart, C.W. & Fuller, S.L.H.), 78-118. Academic Press Inc, New York.

Reish, D.J., 1978. The effects of heavy metals on polychaetous annelids. Revue Internationale d'Oceanographie Medicale, 49, 99-104.

Reish, D.J., 1977. Effects of chromium on the life history of Capitella capitata (Annelida: Polychaeta). In: Physiological responses of marine biota to pollutants, F.J. Vernberg, A. Calabraese, F.P. Thurberg & W.B. Vernberg (Eds.). New York: Academic Press, pp.109-201.

Reish, D.J., 1974. Induction of abnormal polychaete larvae by heavy metals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 5, 125-126.

Reiss, H., Greenstreet, S.P., Sieben, K., Ehrich, S., Piet, G.J., Quirijns, F., Robinson, L., Wolff, W.J. & Kröncke, I., 2009. Effects of fishing disturbance on benthic communities and secondary production within an intensively fished area. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 394, 201-213.

Reiss, H., Meybohm, K. & Kröncke, I., 2006. Cold winter effects on benthic macrofauna communities in near-and offshore regions of the North Sea. Helgoland Marine Research 60 (3), 224-238.

Reiss, H. & Kröncke, I., 2005. Seasonal variability of infaunal community structures in three areas of the North Sea under different environmental conditions. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 65 (1), 253-274. DOI

Reiswig, Henry M. & Champagne, Pascale, 1995. The NE Atlantic glass sponges Pheronema carpenteri (Thomson) and P. grayi Kent (Porifera: Hexactinellida) are synonyms. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 115 (4), 373-384. DOI

Reitan, K.I., Oie, G., Vadstein, O. & Reinertsen, H., 2002. Response on scallop culture to enhanced nutrient supply by experimental fertilization of a landlocked bay. Hydrobiologia, 484, 111-120.

Reitzel, A.M., Burton, P.M., Krone, C. & Finnerty, J.R., 2007. Comparison of developmental trajectories in the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: embryogenesis, regeneration, and two forms of asexual fission. Invertebrate Biology, 126 (2), 99-112.

Reitzel, A.M., Chu, T., Edquist, S., Genovese, C., Church, C., Tarrant, A.M. & Finnerty, J.R., 2013. Physiological and developmental responses to temperature by the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 484, 115-130.

Reitzel, A.M., Darling, J.A., Sullivan, J.C. & Finnerty, J.R., 2008. Global population genetic structure of the starlet anemone Nematostella vectensis: multiple introductions and implications for conservation policy. Biological Invasions, 10 (8), 1197-1213.

Reitzel, A.M., Sullivan, J.C. & Finnerty, J.R., 2010. Discovering SNPs in protein coding regions with stellasnp: Illustrating the characterization and geographic distribution of polymorphisms in the estuarine anemone Nematostella vectensis. Estuaries and Coasts, 33 (4), 930-943.

Relini, G., 1983. Remarks on the ecology of Chthamalids in the Ligurian Sea. Rapp. P.-V. Reun. Ciesm., 28, 273-275.

Remeikaitė-Nikienė, N., Lujanienė, G., Malejevas, V., Barisevičiūtė, R., Žilius, M., Garnaga-Budrė, G. & Stankevičius, A., 2016. Distribution and sources of organic matter in sediments of the south-eastern Baltic sea. Journal of Marine Systems, 157, 75-81.

Remen, M., Imsland, A.K., Stefansson, S.O., Jonassen, T.M., Foss, A., 2008. Interactive effects of ammonia and oxygen on growth and physiological status of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Aquaculture, 274(2-4), 292-299.

Renborg, E., Johannesson, K. & Havenhand, J., 2014. Variable salinity tolerance in ascidian larvae is primarily a plastic response to the parental environment. Evolutionary ecology, 28 (3), 561-572

Repolho, T., Duarte, B., Dionísio, G., Paula, J.R., Lopes, A.R., Rosa, I.C., Grilo, T.F., Caçador, I., Calado, R. & Rosa, R., 2017. Seagrass ecophysiological performance under ocean warming and acidification. Scientific reports, 7, 41443. DOI

Retière, C. 1979. Contribution à l’étude des peuplements benthiques du golfe normano-breton. Thèse Doctorat Etat, ès Sciences Naturelles, Université de Rennes.

Retraubun, A.S.W., Dawson, M. & Evans, S.M., 1996. Spatial and temporal factors affecting sediment turnover by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 201 (1-2), 23-35.

Reusch, T.B., Ehlers A., Hämmerli, A. & Worm, B., 2005. Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102 (8), 2826-2831.

Reusch, T.B.H., Stam, W.T., & Olsen, J.C. 1998. Size and estimated age of genets in eelgrass, Zostera marina, assessed with microsatellite markers. Marine Biology, 133, 519-525.

Reyes-Giler, C.L., Benson, B.E., Levy, M., Chen, X.Q., Pires, A., Pechenik, J.A. & Davies, S.W., 2021. The Marine Gastropod Crepidula fornicata Remains Resilient to Ocean Acidification Across Two Life History Stages. Frontiers in Physiology, 12. DOI

Reyes-Martínez, M.J., Ruíz-Delgado, M.C., Sánchez-Moyano, J.E. & García-García, F.J., 2015. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach. Marine Environmental Research, 103, 36-45.

Reynolds, L.K., Waycott, M. & McGlathery, K.J., 2013. Restoration recovers population strucutre and landscape genetic connectivity in a dispersal-limited ecosystem. Journal of Ecology, 101, 1288-1297. DOI

Rhoads, D. & Young, D., 1971. Animal-sediment relations in Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts II. Reworking by Molpadia oolitica (Holothuroidea). Marine Biology, 11 (3), 255-261.

Rhoads, D.C., 1974. Organism–sediment relations on the muddy seafloor. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review12, 263-300.

Rhoads, D.C. & Young, D.K., 1970. The influence of deposit-feeding organisms on sediment stability and community trophic structure. Journal of Marine Research, 28, 150-178.

Rhodes, B., Jackson, E.L., Moore, R., Foggo, A. & Frost, M., 2006. The impact of swinging boat moorings on Zostera marina beds and associated infaunal macroinvertebrate communities in Salcombe, Devon, UK. Report to Natural England. pp58, Natural England, Peterborough.

Riba, I., Conradi, M., Forja, J. M. & DelValls, T.A., 2004. Sediment quality in the Guadalquivir estuary: lethal effects associated with the Aznalcollar mining spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48 (1-2), 144-152. DOI

Ribeiro, P.A., Xavier, R., Santos, A.M. & Hawkins, S.J., 2009. Reproductive cycles of four species of Patella (Mollusca: Gastropoda) on the northern and central Portuguese coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 89 (06), 1215-1221.

Rice, K.J. & Emery, N.C., 2003. Managing microevolution: restoration in the face of global change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1 (9), 469-478.

Rice, A.L. & Chapman, C.J., 1981. Observations on the burrows and burrowing behaviour of two mud-dwelling decapod crustaceans, Nephrops norvegicus and Goneplax rhomboides. Marine Biology, 10, 330-342.

Rice, A.L. & de Saint Laurent, M., 1986. The nomenclature and diagnostic characters of four north-eastern Atlantic species of the genus Munida Leach: M. rugosa (Fabricius), M. tenuimana G. O. Sars, M. intermedia A. Milne Edwards and Bouvier, and M. sarsi Huus (crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae). Journal of Natural History, 20 (1), 143-163. DOI

Rice, A.L., Thurston, M.H. & New, A.L., 1990. Dense aggregations of a hexactinellid sponge, Pheronema carpenteri, in the Porcupine Seabight (northeast Atlantic Ocean), and possible causes. Progress in Oceanography, 24 (1), 179-196. DOI

Rice, A.L., Tyler, P.A. & Paterson, G.J.L., 1992. The Pennatulid Kophobelemnon stelliferum (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) in the Porcupine Seabight (north-east Atlantic Ocean). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 72 (02), 417. DOI

Rice, E.L. & Chapman, A.R.O., 1985. A numerical taxonomic study of Fucus distichus (Phaeophyta). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 65, 433-459.

Rice, E.L., Kenchington, T.J. & Chapman, A.R.O., 1985. Intraspecific geographic-morphological variation patterns in Fucus distichus and F. evanescens. Marine Biology, 88, 207-215.

Rice, H., Leighty, D.A. & McLeod, G.C., 1973. The effects of some trace metals on marine phytoplankton. CRC Critical Review in Microbiology, 3, 27-49.

Richards, S. 2007. Magelona filiformis A bristleworm. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Richardson, C., Kennedy, H., Duarte, C.M., Kennedy, D.P. & Proud, S.V., 1999. Age and growth of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis from south-east Spanish Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadows. Marine Biology, 133, 205-212.

Richardson, C.A. & Seed, R., 1990. Predictions of mussel (Mytilus edulis) biomass on an offshore platform from single population samples. Biofouling, 2, 289-297.

Richardson, C.A., Chensery, S.R.N. & Cook, J.M., 2001. Assessing the history of trace metal (Cu, Zn, Pb) contamination in the North Sea through laser ablation - ICP-MS of horse mussel Modiolus modiolus shells Marine Ecology Progress Series, 211, 157-167.

Richardson, C.A., Collis, S.A., Ekaratne, K., Dare, P. & Key, D., 1993. The age determination and growth rate of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, in British waters determined from acetate peels of umbo growth lines. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 50, 493-500.

Richardson, C.A., Crisp, D.J. & Runham, N.W., 1979. Tidally deposited growth bans in the shell of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule (L.). Malacologia, 18, 277-290.

Richardson, C.A., Crisp, D.J., Runham, N.W. & Gruffydd, Ll. D., 1980. The use of tidal growth bands in the shell of Cerastoderma edule to measure seasonal growth rates under cool temperate and sub-arctic conditions. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 60, 977-989.

Richardson, C.A., Ibarrola, I. & Ingham, R.J., 1993b. Emergence pattern and spatial distribution of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 99, 71-81.

Richardson, D.H. & Young, C.M., 1977. Lichens and vertebrates. In Lichen ecology (ed. M.R.D. Seaward), pp. 121-144. London: Academic Press.

Richardson, D.H.S., 1992. Pollution monitoring with lichens. Slough: Richmond Publishing.

Richardson, J.P., 1979. Overwintering of Dictyota dichotoma (Phaeophyceae) near its northern distribution limit on the east coast of North America. Journal of Phycology, 15 (1), 22-26.

Richardson, S.L., 2001. Syringammina corbicula sp. nov. (Xenophyophorea) from the Cape Verde Plateau, E. Atlantic. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 31 (3), 201-209. DOI

Richmond, R.H., 1997. Reproduction and recruitment in corals: critical links in the persistence of reefs. In Life and death of coral reefs (ed. C. Birkeland), pp. 175-197. New York: Chapman & Hall.

Richter, Detlev K & Bruckschen, Peter, 1998. Geochemistry of recent tests of Echinocyamus pusillus: constraints for temperature and salinity. Carbonates and Evaporites, 13, 157-167.

Richter, W. & Sarnthein, M., 1976. Molluscan colonization of different sediments on submerged platforms in the Western Baltic Sea. In Biology of benthic organsisms (ed. B.F. Keegan, P.Ó. Céidigh & P.J.S. Boaden), pp. 531-539. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Ridder de, C., David, B., Laurin, B. & Gall le, P., 1991. Population dynamics of the spatangoid echinoid Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant) in the Bay of Seine, Normandy. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Echinoderm Conference Atami, 9 - 14 September 1991: Biology of Echinodermata, (ed. Yanagisawa, T., Yasumasu, I., Oguro, C., Suzuki, N. & Motokawa, T.), 153-158. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Ridgeway, S.A., Reid, D.G., Taylor, J.D., Branch, G.M. & Hodgson, A.N., 1998. A cladistic phylogeny of the family Patellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 353(1375), 1645-1671.

Ridgway, I.D. & Richardson, C.A., 2011. Arctica islandica: the longest lived non colonial animal known to science. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 21 (3), 297-310.

Ridgway, I.D., Richardson, C.A., Scourse, J.D., Butler, P.G. & Reynolds, D.J., 2012. The population structure and biology of the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, in Belfast Lough, Northern Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 92 (3), 539-546.

Riedel, B., Zuschin, M. & Stachowitsch, M., 2012. Tolerance of benthic macrofauna to hypoxia and anoxia in shallow coastal seas: a realistic scenario. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 458, 39-52.

Riedl, R., 1966. Biologie der Meereshöhlen. Topographie, faunistik und okologie eines unterseeischen lebensraumes. Eine monographie. 636 pp. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey.

Riedl, R., 1971. Water movement, Animals. In Marine Ecology, Vol.1, Environmental factors, (ed. O. Kinne), pp. 1123-1149. New York: John Wiley.

Riemann B. & Hoffmann E., 1991. Ecological consequences of dredging and bottom trawling in the Limfjord, Denmark. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 69(1), 171-178.

Riera, R., Tuya, F., Ramos, E., Rodríguez, M. & Monterroso, Ó., 2012. Variability of macrofaunal assemblages on the surroundings of a brine disposal. Desalination, 291, 94-100.

Riesen, W. & Reise, K., 1982. Macrobenthos of the subtidal Wadden Sea: revisited after 55 years. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 35, 409-423.

Rietema, H., 1991. Evidence for ecotypic divergence between Phycodrys rubens populations from the Baltic Sea and North Sea. Botanica Marina34(5), 375-382.

Rietema, H., 1995. Ecoclinal variation in Rhodomela confervoides along a salinity gradient in the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Botanica Marina, 38 (1-6), 475-480.

Rietema, H., 1993. Ecotypic differences between Baltic and North Sea populations of Delesseria sanguinea and Membranoptera alata. Botanica Marina, 36, 15-21.

Rigal, F., Viard, F., Ayata, S-D. & Comtet, T., 2010. Does larval supply explain the low proliferation of the invasive gastropod Crepidula fornicata in a tidal estuary? Biological Invasions, 12 (9), 3171-3186. DOI

Riisgård, H.U. & Svane, I., 1999. Filter feeding in lancelets (amphioxus), Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Invertebrate Biology, 118 (4), 423-432

Riisgård, H.U., Bøttiger, L. & Pleissner, D.  2012. Effect of salinity on growth of mussels, Mytilus edulis, with special reference to Great Belt (Denmark). Open Journal of Marine Science, 2, 167-176

Riisgård, H.U., Bondo Christensen, P., Olesen, N.J., Petersen, J.K, Moller, M.M. & Anderson, P., 1993. Biological structure in a shallow cove (Kertinge Nor, Denmark) - control by benthic nutrient fluxes and suspension-feeding ascidians and jellyfish. Ophelia, 41, 329-344.

Riisgård, H.U., Jürgensen, C. & Clausen, T., 1996. Filter-feeding ascidians (Ciona intestinalis) in a shallow cove: implications of hydrodynamics for grazing impact. Journal of Sea Research, 35 (4), 293-300.

Riisgård, H.U. & Banta, G.T., 1998. Irrigation and deposit feeding by the lugworm Arenicola marina, characteristics and secondary effects on the environment. A review of current knowledge. Vie et Milieu, 48, 243-257.

Riisgård, H.U., 1994. Filter-feeding in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor: a review. Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology, 28, 453-458.

Riisgård, H.U., 1991. Suspension feeding in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 70, 29-37.

Riisgård, H.U., Lüskow, F., Pleissner, D., Lundgreen, K. & López, M., 2013. Effect of salinity on filtration rates of mussels Mytilus edulis with special emphasis on dwarfed mussels from the low-saline Central Baltic Sea. Helgoland Marine Research, 67, 591-8

Rijken, M., 1979. Food and food uptake in Arenicola marina. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 13, 405-421.

Riley M.J., Harman A. & Rees R.G., 2009. Evidence of continued hunting of whale sharks Rhincodon typus in the Maldives. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 86(3), 371. DOI: 10.1007/s10641-009-9541-0

Riley, J.D. & Parnell, W.G., 1984. The distribution of young cod. In The propagation of Cod, Gadus morhua L. Flødevigen rapportser. 1, (eds. E. Dahl, D.S. Danielssen, E. Moksness and S. P.), pp. 563-580.

Riley, K. 2008. Clavelina lepadiformis Light bulb sea squirt. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Available from:

Riley, K. & Ballerstedt, S., 2005. Spirobranchus triqueter. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom:. [cited 08/01/2016]. Available from:

Rinde, E. & Sjøtun, K., 2005. Demographic variation in the kelp Laminaria hyperborea along a latitudinal gradient. Marine Biology, 146 (6), 1051-1062.

Rinde, E., Christie, H., Fredriksen, S. & Sivertsen, A., 1992. Ecological consequences of kelp trawling: Importance of the structure of the kelp forest for abundance of fauna in the kelp holdfasts, benthic fauna and epiphytes. Norsk Institutt for Naturforskning. Oppdragsmelding, (127), 1-37.

Rindi, F., Guiry, M.D., Barbiero, R.P. & Cinelli, F., 1999. The marine and terrestrial Prasiolales (Chlorophyta) of Galway City, Ireland: A morphological and ecological study. Journal of Phycology, 35 (3), 469-482.

Ringdal, O. & Julshamn, K., 1985. Effect of selenite on the uptake of methylmercury in cod (Gadus morhua). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 35(1), 335-344.

Ringelband, U., 2001. Salinity dependence of vanadium toxicity against the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 48, 18-26.

Riquet, F., Le Cam, S., Fonteneau, E. & Viard, F., 2016. Moderate genetic drift is driven by extreme recruitment events in the invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata. Heredity, 117 (1), 42-50. DOI

Risk, M. J., Sherwood, O., Nairn, R. & Gibbons, C., 2009. Tracking the record of sewage discharge off Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1950, using stable isotope records from antipatharians. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 397, 219-226. DOI

Rita, A., Isabel, S.-P., Serrao, E.A. & Per, Å., 2012. Recovery after trampling disturbance in a canopy-forming seaweed population. Marine Biology, 159 (3), 697-707.

Ritz, D.D., 1980. Tolerance of intertidal amphipods to fluctuating conditions of salinity, oxygen and copper. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 60, 489-498.

Rivera-Ingraham, G.A., Bickmeyer, U. & Abele, D., 2013. The physiological response of the marine platyhelminth Macrostomum lignano to different environmental oxygen concentrations. Journal of Experimental Biology, 216 (14), 2741-2751.

Rivkin, R.B. & DeLaca, T.E., 1990. Trophic dynamics in Antarctic benthic communities. I. In situ ingestion of macroalgae by foraminifera and metazoan meiofauna. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 64, 129-136.

Rjeibi, O., Gaamour, A. & Missaoui, H., 2010. Kinetics of Oögenesis and Spawning Strategy of the Red Spiny Lobster Palinurus elephas. 30, 401-412.

Roark, E.B., Guilderson, T.P., Dunbar, R.B., Fallon, S.J. & Mucciarone, D.A., 2009. Extreme longevity in proteinaceous deep-sea corals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (13), 5204-5208. DOI

Roark, E.B., Guilderson, T.P., Flood-Page, S., Dunbar, R.B., Ingram, B.L., Fallon, S.J. & McCulloch, M., 2005. Radiocarbon-based ages and growth rates of bamboo corals from the Gulf of Alaska. Geophysical Research Letters, 32 (4). DOI

Roark, E.B., Thomas, P.G., Robert, B.D. & Ingram, B.L., 2006. Radiocarbon-based ages and growth rates of Hawaiian deep-sea corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 327, 1-14

Roast, S.D., Thompson, R.S., Donkin, P., Widdows, J. & Jones, M.B., 1999b. Toxicity of the organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and dimethoate to Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea). Water Research, 33, 319-326.

Roast, S.D., Thompson, R.S., Widdows, J. & Jones, M.B., 1998. Mysids and environmental monitoring: a case for their use in estuaries. Marine and Freshwater Research, 49, 827-932.

Roast, S.D., Widdows, J. & Jones, M.B., 2001. Impairment of mysid (Neomysis integer) swimming ability: an environmentally realistic assessment of the impact of cadmium exposure. Aquatic Toxicology, 52 , 217-227.

Roast, S.D., Widdows, J. & Jones, M.B., 2000. Mysids and trace metals: disruption of swimming as a behavioural indicator of environmental contamination. Marine Environmental Research, 50, 107-112.

Roast, S.D., Widdows, J. & Jones, M.B., 2000b. Disruption of swimming in the hyperbenthic mysid Neomysis integer (Peracarida: Mysidacea) by the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos. Aquatic Toxicology, 47, 227-241.

Roast, S.D., Widdows, J. & Jones, M.B., 1999. Scope for growth of the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Peracarida: Mysidacea): effects of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 191, 233-241.

Roast, S.D., Widdows, J. & Jones, M.B., 1999c. Respiratory responses of the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Peracarida: Mysidacea) in relation to a variable environment. Marine Biology, 133, 643-649.

Roast, S.D., Widdows, J. & Jones, M.B., 1998b. The position maintenance behaviour of Neomysis integer (Peracarida: Mysidacea) in response to current velocity, substratum and salinity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 220, 25-45.

Robb, A.P. & Hislop, J.R.G., 1980. The food of five gadoid species during the pelagic 0-group phase in the northern North Sea. Journal of Fish Biology 16, 199-217.

Robbins, I., 1984a. The regulation of ingestion rate, at high suspended particulate concentrations, by some phleobranchiate ascidians. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 82 (1), 1-10.

Robbins, I.J. 1985b. Ascidian growth rate and survival at high inorganic particulate concentrations. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 16, 365-367.

Robbins, I.J., 1985a. Food passage and defaecation in Ciona intestinalis (L.); The effects of suspension quantity and quality. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 89, 247-254

Robbins, J.V., 1978. Effects of physical and chemical factors on photosynthetic and respiratory rates of Palmaria palmata (Florideophyceae), In Proceedings of the ninth International Seaweed Symposium, Santa Barbara, California, USA, 20-27 August 1977, (ed. Jensen, A. & Stein, J.R.), 273-283. Science Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Roberts, C., Smith, C., H., T. & Tyler-Walters, H., 2010. Review of existing approaches to evaluate marine habitat vulnerability to commercial fishing activities. Report to the Environment Agency from the Marine Life Information Network and ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd. Environment Agency Evidence Report: SC080016/R3., Environment Agency, Peterborough, pp.

Roberts, C.M., 2002d. Deep impact: the rising toll of fishing in the deep sea. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 17 (5), 242-245. 10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02492-8

Roberts, D., 1975. Sub-lethal effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons on bivalves. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 6, 20-24.

Roberts, D., Allcock, L., Fariñas-Franco, J.M., Gorman, E., Maggs, C.A.,  Mahon, A.M., D Smyth, D., Strain, E & Wilson C.D. 2011. Modiolus Restoration Research Project: Final Report and Recommendations. Queens University Belfast, Departments of Agriculture and Rural Development, and Northern Ireland Environment Agency: 246 pp.

Roberts, D., Cummins, S., Davis, A. & Chapman, M., 2006. Structure and dynamics of sponge-dominated assemblages on exposed and sheltered temperate reefs. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 321, 19-30.

Roberts, D.A., Birchenough, S.N.R., Lewis, C., Sanders, M.B., Bolam, T. & Sheahan, D., 2013. Ocean acidification increases the toxicity of contaminated sediments. Global Change Biology.19 (2), 340-351. DOI:

Roberts, D.A., Johnston, E.L. & Knott, N.A., 2010b. Impacts of desalination plant discharges on the marine environment: A critical review of published studies. Water Research, 44 (18), 5117-5128.

Roberts, E.M., Mienis, F., Rapp, H.T., Hanz, U., Meyer, H.K. & Davies, A.J., 2018. Oceanographic setting and short-timescale environmental variability at an Arctic seamount sponge ground. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 138, 98-113. DOI

Roberts, H.H., Wiseman, W.J. & Suchanek, T.H. Jr., 1981. Lagoon sediment transport: The significant effect of Callianassa bioturbation. In The Reef And Man. Proceedings Of The Fourth International Coral Reef Symposium. Manila (Philippines), 18-22 May 1981, Volume 1. (ed. E.D. Gomez et al.), pp. 459-466.

Roberts, J. M., Harvey, S. M., Lamont, P. A., Gage, J. D. & Humphery, J. D., 2000. Seabed photography, environmental assessment and evidence for deep-water trawling on the continental margin west of the Hebrides. Hydrobiologia, 441 (1), 173-183. DOI

Roberts, J. M., Henry, L. A., Long, D. & Hartley, J. P., 2008. Cold-water coral reef frameworks, megafaunal communities and evidence for coral carbonate mounds on the Hatton Bank, north east Atlantic. Facies, 54 (3), 297-316.

Roberts, J., Wheeler, A., Freiwald, A. & Cairns, S., 2009. Cold Water Corals: The Biology and Geology of Deep-Sea Coral Habitats. Cambridge University Press, 1-350. DOI

Roberts, J.M., 2009. Cold-water corals: the biology and geology of deep-sea coral habitats. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Roberts, J.M. & Anderson, R., 2003. Laboratory studies of Lophelia pertusa - preliminary studies of polyp behaviour. [On-line], 2003-01-29

Roberts, J.M. & Anderson, R.M., 2002. A new laboratory method for monitoring deep-water coral polyp behaviour. Hydrobiologia, 471, 143-148.

Roberts, J.M. & Cairns, S.D., 2014. Cold-water corals in a changing ocean. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 7, 118-126.

Roberts, J.M., 2002a. The occurrence of the coral Lophelia pertusa and other conspicuous epifauna around an oil platform in the North Sea. Journal for the Society for Underwater Technology, 25, 83-91.

Roberts, J.M., 2002b. Cold water coral, Lophelia pertusa. [On-line], 2003-01-28

Roberts, J.M., Brown, C.J., Long, D. & Bates.C.R. 2005. Acoustic mapping using a multibeam echosounder reveals cold-water coral reefs and surrounding habitats. Coral Reefs, 24, 654-669.

Roberts, J.M., Davies, A.J., Henry, L.A., Dodds, L.A., Duineveld, G.C.A., Lavaleye, M.S.S., Maier, C., van Soest, R.W.M., Bergman, M.J.N., Hühnerbach, V., Huvenne, V.A.I., Sinclair, D.J., Watmough, T., Long, D., Green, S.L. & van Haren, H., 2009. Mingulay reef complex: an interdisciplinary study of cold-water coral habitat, hydrography and biodiversity. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 397, 139-151. DOI

Roberts, J.M., Long, D., Wilson, J.B., Mortensen, P.B. & Gage, J.D., 2003. The cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) and enigmatic seabed mounds along the north-east Atlantic margin: are they related? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 7-20.

Roberts, J.M., Wheeler, A.J. & Freiwald, A., 2006. Reefs of the deep: the biology and geology of cold-water coral ecosystems. Science, 213, 543-547. DOI

Roberts, L., Cheesman, S., Breithaupt, T. and Elliott, M., 2015. Sensitivity of the mussel Mytilus edulis to substrate‑borne vibration in relation to anthropogenically generated noise. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 538, 185-195.

Roberts, M., 1997. Coral in deep water. New Scientist, 155, 40-43.

Roberts, R. D., Gregory, M.R. & Foster, B.A., 1998. Developing an efficient macrofauna monitoring index from an impact study—a dredge spoil example. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36 (3), 231-235.

Roberts, S., 2002c. Welsh-English dictionary of common names to the marine species of Wales (Geiriadur Cymraeg-Saesneg o enwau cyffredin rhywogaethau morol Cymru). Countryside Council for Wales (Cyngor Cefn Gwlad Cymru). Report no. 02/06/02

Robertson, A., 1991. Effects of a toxic bloom of Chrysochromulina polylepis, on the Swedish west coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 71, 569-578.

Robertson, A.I. & Mann, K.H., 1980. The role of amphipods in the initial fragmentation of eelgrass detritus in Nova Scotia, Canada. Marine Biology, 59, 63-69.

Robertson, B.L., 1985. Reproductive ecology and canopy structure of Fucus spiralis (L.) Botanica Marina, 30, 475-482.

Robertson, L.M., Hamel, J.-F. & Mercier, A., 2017. Feeding in deep-sea demosponges: Influence of abiotic and biotic factors. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 127, 49-56. DOI

Robin, J. P., Roberts, M., Zeidberg, L., Bloor, I., Rodriguez, A., Briceño, F., Downey, N., Mascaró, M., Navarro, M., Guerra, A., Hofmeister, J., Barcellos, D.D., Lourenço, S.A.P., Roper, C.F.E., Moltschaniwskyj, N.A., Green, C.P. & Mather, J., 2014. Transitions During Cephalopod Life History: The Role of Habitat, Environment, Functional Morphology and Behaviour. In Vidal, E.A.G. (ed.) Advances in Marine Biology, 64, 361-437.

Robins, M.W., 1968. The ecology of Alcyonium species in the Scilly Isles. Report of the Underwater Association, 3, 67-71

Robins, P.E., Neill, S.P., Giménez, L., Jenkins, S.R. & Malham, S.K., 2013. Physical and biological controls on larval dispersal and connectivity in a highly energetic shelf sea. Limnology and Oceanography, 58(2), 505-524.

Robinson, B. J. O., Barnes, D. K. A., Grange, L. J. & Morley, S. A., 2021. Intermediate ice scour disturbance is key to maintaining a peak in biodiversity within the shallows of the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Scientific Reports, 11 (1), 16712. DOI

Robinson, M. & Tully, O., 2000. Seasonal variation in community structure and recruitment of benthic decapods in a sub-tidal cobble habitat. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 206, 181-191.

Robinson, M. & Tully, O., 2000. Dynamics of a subtidal population of the porcellanid crab Pisidia longicornis (Decapoda: Crustacea). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80, 75-83.

Robinson, R.F. & Richardson, C.A., 1998. The direct and indirect effects of suction dredging on a razor clam (Ensis arcuatus) population. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55, 970-977.

Robinson, W. & Pederson, J., 2005. Contamination, habitat degradation, overfishing - an ‘‘Either-Or’’ debate?

Robledo, J.A.F., Santarem, M.M., Gonzalez, P. & Figueras, A., 1995. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of the serum of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. and its relationship to the reproductive cycle and parasitic load. Aquaculture, 133 (3-4), 311-322.

Robles, C., 1982. Disturbance and predation in an assemblage of herbivorous Diptera and algae on rocky shores. Oecologia, 54 (1), 23-31.

Rocha, F., Guerra, Á., & González, A. F. 2001. A review of reproductive strategies in cephalopods. Biological Reviews, 76, 291–304.

Rocha, T.L., Gomes, T., Sousa, V.S., Mestre, N.C. & Bebianno, M.J., 2015. Ecotoxicological impact of engineered nanomaterials in bivalve molluscs: An overview. Marine Environmental Research111, 74-88. DOI

Roche, C., Lyons, D.O.,O'Connor, B. 2007. Benthic surveys of sandbanks in the Irish Sea. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 29. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

Roddie, B., Kedwards, T., Ashby-Crane, R. & Crane, M., 1994. The toxicity to Corophium volutator (Pallas) of beach sand contaminated by a spillage of crude oil. Chemosphere, 29 (4), 719-727.

Roder, C., Berumen, M.L., Bouwmeester, J., Papathanassiou, E., Al-Suwailem, A. & Voolstra, C.R., 2013. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea. Scientific reports, 3 (1). DOI:

Rodhouse, D.M., 1984. Experimental fishing for the spider crab, Maja squinado: sea and laboratory trials. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 64, 251-259.

Rodhouse, P.G.K., Pierce, G.J., Nichols, O.C., Sauer, W.H.H., Arkhipkin, A.I., Laptikhovsky, V.V., Lipiński, M.R., Ramos, J.E., Gras, M., Kidokoro, H., Sadayasu, K., Pereira, J., Lefkaditou, E., Pita, C., Gasalla, M., Haimovici, M., Sakai, M. & Downey, N., 2014. Environmental Effects on Cephalopod Population Dynamics: Implications for Management of Fisheries. In Vidal, E.A.G. (ed.) Advances in Marine Biology, 64, 99-233.

Rodhouse, P. G., Nigmatullin, C. M., 1996. Role as consumers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 351, 1003- 1022. 

Rodil, I.F., Lucena-Moya, P., Olabarria, C. & Arenas, F., 2015. Alteration of Macroalgal Subsidies by Climate-Associated tressors Affects Behavior of Wrack-Reliant Beach Consumers. Ecosystems, 18 (3), 428-440.

Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., Lombardi, C., Cocito, S., Hall-Spencer, J. M. & Gambi, M. C., 2010. Effects of ocean acidification and high temperatures on the bryozoan Myriapora truncata at natural CO2 vents. Marine Ecology-an Evolutionary Perspective, 31 (3), 447-456. DOI https://10.1111/j.1439-0485.2009.00354.x

Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., Montagna, P., Aliani, S., Borghini, M., Canese, S., Hall-Spencer, J.M., Foggo, A., Milazzo, M., Taviani, M. & Houlbrèque, F., 2015. Calcification is not the Achilles’ heel of cold-water corals in an acidifying ocean. Global Change Biology, 21 (6), 2238-2248. DOI

Rodríguez Prieto, C. & Polo Albertí, L. (1996). Effects of the sewage pollution in the structure and dynamics of the community of Cystoseira mediterranea (Fucales, Phaeophyceae). Scientia marina, 60(2-3): 253-263.

Rodrigues, A.M., Quintino, V., Sampaio, L., Freitas, R. & Neves, R., 2011. Benthic biodiversity patterns in Ria de Aveiro, Western Portugal: Environmental-biological relationships. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 95 (2–3), 338-348.

Rodriguez, J., 1980. Echinoderms (except Holothuridae) of the southern Mediterranean coast of Spain. In Jangoux, M. (ed.) Echinoderms: present and past, Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema, pp. 127-131.

Rodriguez, S.R., Ojeda, F.P. & Inestrosa, N.C., 1993. Settlement of benthic marine invertebrates. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 97, 193-207.

Rodriguez-Jaramillo, C., Maeda-Martinez, A.N., Valdez, M.E., Reynoso-Granados, T., Monsalvo-Spencer, P., Prado-Ancona, D., Cardoza-Velasco, F., Robles-Mungaray, M. & Sicard, M.T., 2001. The effect of temperature on the reproductive maturity of the penshell Atrina maura (Sowerby, 1835) (Bivalvia: Pinnidae). Journal of Shellfish Research, 20 (1), 39-47.

Rodwell, J.S. (ed.), 2000. British plant communities, vol. 5, Maritime communities and vegetation of open habitats. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rodwell, J.S. (ed.), 1995. British plant communities, vol. 4. Aquatic communities, swamps and tall-herb fens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rofritz, D.J., 1977. Oligochaetes as a winter food source for the Old Squaw. Journal of Wildlife Management, 41, 590-591.

Rogers, A., Blanchard, Julia L. & Mumby, Peter J., 2014. Vulnerability of Coral Reef Fisheries to a Loss of Structural Complexity. Current Biology, 24 (9), 1000-1005. DOI

Rogers, A.D., 1997. The biology of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) and oil exploration west of Shetland. London: Greenpeace, 67p.

Rogers, A.D., 1999. The biology of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) and other deep-water reef-forming corals and impacts from human activities. International Review of Hydrobiology, 84, 315-406. DOI

Rogers, Alex D., 2019. Chapter 23 - Threats to Seamount Ecosystems and Their Management. In Sheppard, Charles (eds.). World Seas: an Environmental Evaluation (Second Edition). : Academic Press, pp. 427-451.

Rogers, D., Elliot, K., Malik, M., Kelley, C. D. & Mah, C., 2017. Okeanos Explorer ROV dive summary, EX1706, Dive 4, July 15, 2017. NOAA (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration), 8 pp. Available from:

Rogers, K.M., 2003. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures indicate recovery of marine biota from sewage pollution at Moa Point, New Zealand. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 821-827.

Rogers, S.I. & Ellis, J.R., 2000. Changes in demersal fish assemblages of British coastal waters during the 20th century. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, 866-881.

Rogers, S.I., 1988. Reproductive effort and efficiency of the female common goby, Pomatoschistus microps (Kroyer) (Teleosteii, Gobioidei). Journal of Fish Biology, 33, 109-119.

Rogers, S.I., 1989. Seasonal variations in fecundity and egg size of the common goby, Pomatoschistus microps. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 69, 535-543.

Rogers-Bennett, L. & Catton, C.A., 2019. Marine heatwave and multiple stressors tip bull kelp forest to sea urchin barrens. Scientific Reports, 9 (1), 15050. DOI

Roginskaya, I.S., 1970. Tenellia adspersa, a nudibranch new to the Azov Sea with notes on its taxonomy and ecology. Malacological Review, 3, 167-174.

Rognstad, R.L., Wethey, D.S. & Hilbish, T.J., 2014. Connectivity and population repatriation: limitations of climate and input into the larval pool. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 495, 175-183.

Rohde, S., Hiebenthal, C., Wahl, M., Karez, R. & Bischof, K., 2008. Decreased depth distribution of Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae) in the Western Baltic: effects of light deficiency and epibionts on growth and photosynthesis. European Journal of Phycology, 43 (2), 143-150.

Rokoengen, K. & Østma, S.R., 1985. Shallow geology off Fedje western Norway. IKU Report, no. 24.1459/01/85.

Rolan, R.G. & Gallagher, R., 1991. Recovery of Intertidal Biotic Communities at Sullom Voe Following the Esso Bernicia Oil Spill of 1978. International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings: March 1991, Vol. 1991, No. 1, pp. 461-465. DOI:

Roleda, M.Y. & Dethleff, D., 2011. Storm-generated sediment deposition on rocky shores: Simulating burial effects on the physiology and morphology of Saccharina latissima sporophytes. Marine Biology Research, 7 (3), 213-223.

Roleda, M.Y., Campana, G.L., Wiencke, C., Hanelt, D., Quartino, M.L. & Wulff, A., 2009a. Sensitivity of Antarctic Urospora penicilliformis (Ulotrichales, Chlorophyta) to Ultraviolet Radiation is Life-Stage Dependent. Journal of Phycology, 45 (3), 600-609.

Roleda, M.Y., Dethleff, D. & Wiencke, C., 2008. Transient sediment load on blades of Arctic Saccharina latissima can mitigate UV radiation effect on photosynthesis. Polar Biology, 31 (6), 765-769.

Roleda, M.Y., Lütz-Meindl, U., Wiencke, C. & Lütz, C., 2009b. Physiological, biochemical, and ultrastructural responses of the green macroalga Urospora penicilliformis from Arctic Spitsbergen to UV radiation. Protoplasma, 243 (1), 105-116.

Roleda, M.Y., Morris, J.N., McGraw, C.M. & Hurd, C.L., 2012. Ocean acidification and seaweed reproduction: increased CO2 ameliorates the negative effect of lowered pH on meiospore germination in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Global Change Biology, 18 (3), 854-864. DOI

Roleda, M.Y., Wiencke, C., Hanelt, D. & Bischof, K., 2007. Sensitivity of the early life stages of macroalgae from the Northern Hemisphere to ultraviolet radiation. Photochemistry and photobiology, 83(4), 851-862.

Romagny, S., Darmaillacq, A.-S., Guibé, M., Bellanger, C. & Dickel, L., 2012. Feel, smell and see in an egg: emergence of perception and learning in an immature invertebrate, the cuttlefish embryo. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 215, 4125-4130.

Rombouts, I., Beaugrand, G. & Dauvin, J. C., 2012. Potential changes in benthic macrofaunal distributions from the English Channel simulated under climate change scenarios. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 99, 153-161. DOI

Romero, M. Carolina, Tapella, Federico, Stevens, Bradley & Buck, C. Loren, 2010. Effects of reproductive stage and temperature on rates of oxygen consumption in Paralithodes platypus (Decapoda: Anomura). Journal of Crustacean Biology, 30 (3), 393-400.

Rooper, C.N., Wilborn, R., Goddard, P., Williams, K., Towler, R. & Hoff, G.R., 2018. Validation of deep-sea coral and sponge distribution models in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 75 (1), 199-209. DOI

Rooper, C.N., Wilkins, M.E., Rose, C.S. & Coon, C., 2011. Modeling the impacts of bottom trawling and the subsequent recovery rates of sponges and corals in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Continental Shelf Research, 31 (17), 1827-1834. DOI

Roos, P.J., 1979. Two-stage life cycle of a Cordylophora population in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia, 62, 231-239.

Roper, C. F. E., Lu, C. C. & Vecchione, M., 1998. A revision of the systematics and distribution of Illex species (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae). In Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods, vol. 2, (ed. N.A. Voss, M. Vecchione, R.B. Toll & M.J. Sweeney), Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 586, pp405-423. Smithsonian Institution Press.

Roper, C.F.E., Sweeney, M.J. & Nauen, C.E., 1984. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 3. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, 125, 3, 277. Avaliable:

Ropert, M. & Dauvin, J-C., 2000. Renewal and accumulation of a Lanice conchilega (Pallas) population in the baie des Veys, western Bay of seine. Oceanologica Acta, 23, 529-546.

Ropes, J.W. 1989. The food habits of five crabs species at Pettaquamscutt River, Rhode Island. Fishery Bulletin, 87, 197-204.

Ropes, J.W. & Murawski, S., 1983. Maximum shell length and longevity in ocean quahogs, Arctica islandica Linne. In ICES Council Meeting 1983 (Collected Papers), 8pp.

Ropes, J.W., 1969. The feeding habits of the green crab, Carcinus maenas (L.). Fishery Bulletin of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 67, 183-203.

Ropes, J.W., 1985. Modern methods to age oceanic bivalves. Nautilus, 99, 53-57.

Ropes, J.W., Merrill, A.S., Murawski, S.A., Chang, S. & MacKenzie, C.L., 1979. Impact on clams and scallops. Part I. Field survey assessments. In Oxygen depletion and asociated benthic mortalities in New York Bight, 1976 (ed. R.L. Swanson & C.J. Sindermann), pp. 263-275., U.S. Department of Commerce. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Maryland, NOAA Professional Paper 11.

Rosa, I.C., Raimundo, J., Lopes, V.M., Brandão, C., Couto, A., Santos, C., Cabecinhas, A.S., Cereja, R., Calado, R., Caetano, M. & Rosa, R., 2015. Cuttlefish capsule: an effective shield against contaminants in the wild. Chemosphere, 135, 7-13.

Rose, C.S. & Risk, M.J., 1985. Increase in Cliona delitrix infestation of Montastrea cavernosa heads on an organically polluted portion of the Grand Cayman fringing reef. Marine Ecology, 6 (4), 345-363.

Rose, F., 1981. The wild flower key. British Isles - N.W. Europe with keys to plants not in flower. London: The Penguin Group.

Rose, G.A. & Leggett, W.C., 1988. Atmosphere-ocean coupling and Atlantic cod migrations: effects of wind-forced variations in sea temperatures and currents on nearshore distributions and catch rates of Gadus morhua. Canadian of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 45, 1234-1243.

Rose, G.A., 1993. Cod spawning on a migration highway in the north-west Atlantic Nature, 366, 458-461

Rosemarin, A., Lehtinen, K.J., Notini, M. & Mattsson, J., 1994. Effects of pulp mill chlorate on Baltic Sea algae. Environmental Pollution, 85, 3-13.

Rosenberg, R, Loo, L. -O. & Moller, P., 1992. Hypoxia, salinity and temperature as structuring factors for marine benthic communities in a eutrophic area. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 30, 121-129.

Rosenberg, R. & Loo, L., 1988. Marine eutrophication induced oxygen deficiency: effects on soft bottom fauna, western Sweden. Ophelia, 29, 213-225.

Rosenberg, R., 1977. Benthic macrofaunal dynamics, production, and dispersion in an oxygen-deficient estuary of west Sweden. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 26, 107-33.

Rosenberg, R., 1995. Benthic marine fauna structured by hydrodynamic processes and food availability. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 34, 303-317.

Rosenberg, R., 1993. Suspension feeding in Abra alba (Mollusca). Sarsia, 78, 119-121.

Rosenberg, R., 1976. Benthic faunal dynamics during succession following pollution abatement in a Swedish estuary. Oikos, 27, 414-427.

Rosenberg, R., 1972. Benthic faunal recovery in a Swedish fjord following the closure of a sulphite pulp mill. Oikos, 23, 92-108.

Rosenberg, R., 1997. Benthic macrofaunal dynamics, production and dispersion in an oxygen deficient estuary of west Sweden. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 26, 107 - 133.

Rosenberg, R., Agrenius, S., Hellman, B., Nilsson, H.C. & Norling, K., 2002. Recovery of marine benthic habitats and fauna in a Swedish fjord following improved oxygen conditions. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 234, 43-53.

Rosenberg, R., Gray, J.S., Josefson, A.B. & Pearson, T.H., 1987. Petersen's benthic stations revisited. II. Is the Oslofjord and eastern Skagerrak enriched? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 105, 219-251. DOI

Rosenberg, R., Hellman, B. & Johansson, B., 1991. Hypoxic tolerance of marine benthic fauna. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 79, 127-131. DOI

Rosenberg, R., Nilsson, H.C., Hellman, B. & Agrenius, S., 2000. Depth correlated benthic faunal quantity and infaunal burrow structures on the slopes of a marine depression. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 50 (6), 843-853. DOI

Rosenberg, R., Nilsson, H.C., Hollertz, K. & Hellman, B., 1997. Density-dependent migration in an Amphiura filiformis (Amphiuridae, Echinodermata) infaunal population. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 159, 121-131.

Rosenthal, H., 1980. Implications of transplantations to aquaculture and ecosystems. Marine Fisheries Review, 42, 1-14.

Rosenthal, H., Bronzi, P., Gessner, J., Moreau, D. & Rochard, E., 2007. Action Plan for the conservation and restoration of the European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio). Convention On The Conservation Of European Wildlife And Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). Nature and environment, No. 152, Council of Europe Publishing, Brussels, pp. 125.

Rosenvinge, L.K., 1917. The marine algae of Denmark. Contributions to their natural history. II Rhodophyceae II (Cryptomeniales). Kongelige Dansk Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter, Naturvidenskabelig Matematik Afdeling, 7, 153-284.

Ross, C., Olsen, K., Henry, M. & Pierce, R., 2015b. Mosquito control pesticides and sea surface temperatures have differential effects on the survival and oxidative stress response of coral larvae. Ecotoxicology, 24 (3), 540-552. DOI

Ross, D.J., Johnson, C.R. & Hewitt, C.L., 2002. Impact of introduced seastars Asterias amurensis on survivorship of juvenile commercial bivalves Fulvia tenuicostata. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 241, 99-112.

Ross, D.M., 1967. Behavioural and ecological relationships between sea anemones and other invertebrates. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 5, 291-316.

Ross, Lauren K., Ross, Rebecca E., Stewart, Heather A. & Howell, Kerry L., 2015. The influence of data resolution on predicted distribution and estimates of extent of current protection of three ‘listed’ deep-sea habitats. PloS one, 10 (10), e0140061. DOI

Ross, Rebecca E. & Howell, Kerry L., 2013. Use of predictive habitat modelling to assess the distribution and extent of the current protection of ‘listed’ deep-sea habitats. Diversity and Distributions, 19 (4), 433-445. DOI

Ross, Rebecca E., Wort, Edward J. G. & Howell, Kerry L., 2019. Combining Distribution and Dispersal Models to Identify a Particularly Vulnerable Marine Ecosystem. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6. DOI

Ross, T., Preez, C.D. & Ianson, D., 2020. Rapid deep ocean deoxygenation and acidification threaten life on Northeast Pacific seamounts. Global Change Biology, 26 (11), 6424-6444. DOI

Rossi, F., Forster, R., Montserrat, F., Ponti, M., Terlizzi, A., Ysebaert, T. & Middelburg, J., 2007. Human trampling as short-term disturbance on intertidal mudflats: effects on macrofauna biodiversity and population dynamics of bivalves. Marine Biology, 151 (6), 2077-2090.

Rossi, F., Olabarria, C., Incera, M. & Garrido, J., 2010. The trophic significance of the invasive seaweed Sargassum muticum in sandy beaches. Journal of Sea Research, 63 (1), 52-61.

Rosso, A., 2003. Bryozoan diversity in the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeographia, 24, 227-250.

Rosso, G., 1998. Patterns of color polymorphism in the intertidal snail Littorina littorea in the Race Rocks marine protected area., 2000-05-17

Rostron, D., 1995. The effects of mechanised cockle harvesting on the invertebrate fauna of Llanrhidian sands. In Burry Inlet and Loughor Estuary Symposium, pp. 111-117.

Rostron, D., 1985. Surveys of harbours, rias and estuaries in southern Britain: Falmouth. Volume 1. A report to the NCC by the Field Studies Council Oil Pollution Research Unit, Orielton Field Centre, Pembroke, Dyfed.

Rostron, D.M. & Bunker, F. St P.D., 1997. An assessment of sublittoral epibenthic communities and species following the Sea Empress oil spill. A report to the Countryside Council for Wales from Marine Seen & Sub-Sea Survey., Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, CCW Sea Empress Contact Science, no. 177.

Rostron, D.M., 1998. Sea Empress oil spill: sediment shore impact assessment. Infauna of heavily oiled shores at Milford Haven and Carmarthen Bay. CCW Sea Empress Contract Report, no. 244, Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, 67 pp. 

Rota, E., Perra, G. & Focardi, S., 2009. The European lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas) as an indicator of environmental quality of Tuscan Archipelago (Western Mediterranean Sea). Chemistry and Ecology, 25 (1), 61-69.

Roth, V.D. & Brown, W.L., 1976. Other intertidal air-breathing arthropods. In Marine insects (ed. L. Cheng), pp. 119-150.

Rotherham Biological Records Centre, 2017. Rotherham Biological Records Centre - Non-sensitive Records from all taxonomic groups. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-02.

Rothschild, B., Ault, J., Goulletquer, P. & Heral, M., 1994. Decline of the Chesapeake Bay oyster population: a century of habitat destruction and overfishing. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 111 (1-2), 29-39.

Round, F.E., Sloane, J.F., Ebling, F.J. & Kitching, J.A., 1961. The ecology of Lough Ine. X. The hydroid Sertularia operculata (L.) and its associated flora and fauna: effects of transference to sheltered water. Journal of Ecology, 49, 617-629.

Rouse, G.W. & Pleijel, F., 2001. Polychaetes. New York: Oxford University Press.

Roushdy, H.M. & Hansen, V.K., 1961. Filtration of phytoplankton by the octocoral Alcyonium digitatum L. Nature, 190, 649-650.

Roux, M.J., 1994. The CALSUB cruise on the bathyal slopes off New Caledonia. Mémoires du Muséum national d#&39;Histoire naturelle. Série A, Zoologie., 161, 9-47.

Rowden, A.A. & Jones, M.B., 1994. A contribution to the biology of the burrowing mud shrimp, Callianassa subterreanea (Decapoda: Thalassinidea). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 74, 623-635.

Rowden, A.A. & Jones, M.B., 1997. Recent mud shrimp burrows and bioturbation. Porcupine Newsletter, 6, 153-158.

Rowden, A.A. & Jones, M.B., 1995. The burrow structure of the mud shrimp Callianassa subterranea (Decapoda: Thalassinidea) from the North Sea. Journal of Natural History, 29, 1155-1165.

Rowden, A.A., Jago, C.F. & Jones, S.E., 1998b. Influence of benthic macrofauna on the geotechnical and geophysical properties of surficial sediment, North Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 18, 1347-1363.

Rowden, A.A., Jones, M.B. & Morris, A.W., 1998. The role of Callianassa subterranea (Montagu) (Thalassinidea) in sediment resuspension in the North Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 18, 1365-1380.

Rowell, A.J., 1960. Some early stages in the development of the brachiopod Crania anomala (Müller). Annals and Magazine of the Natural History Society, 13th Series, 3, 35-52.

Rowell, T.W., 1967. Some aspects of the ecology, growth and reproduction of the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus. , MSc Thesis. Queens' University, Ontario

Rowley, S.J., 2008. A sea squirt (Ascidia mentula). Tyler-Walters, H. and Hiscock, K. (eds). Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 26/01/16]. Available from:

Rowley, S.J. 2007. Dysidea fragilis, A sponge. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 30.03.16] Available from:

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2018. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh Herbarium (E). Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-02.

Royer, J., Pierce, G.J., Foucher, E. & Robin, J.P., 2006. The English Channel stock of Sepia officinalis: modelling variability in abundance and impact of the fishery. Fisheries Research, 78, 96-106.

Różycki, O. & Gruszxyński, M., 1991. On the infauna of an Arctic estuary Nottinghambukta, Svalbard. Polish Polar Research, 12 (3), 433-444.

Ruíz, M. & López, C., 2012. Neoplasms in clams. In: Clam fisheries and aquaculture. Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, NY, 149-162.

Rubin, J.A. 1980. Spatial interaction in a sublittoral benthic community. Progress in Underwater Science, 5, 137-146.

Rubin, J.A., 1985. Mortality and avoidance of competitive overgrowth in encrusting Bryozoa. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 23, 291-299.

Rubinstein, N. I., 1978. Effect of sodium pentachlorophenate on the feeding activity of the lugworm, Arenicola cristata Stimpson. In Rao, K.R. (eds.). Pentachlorophenol: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 175-179.

Rubinstein, N. I., 1979. A benthic bioassay using time-lapse photography to measure the effect of toxicants on the feeding behavior of lugworms (Polychaeta: Arenicolidae). In W.B. Vernberg, A. Calabrese, F.P. Thurberg and F.J. Vernberg (eds.). Marine Pollution: Functional Responses. New York: Academic Press, pp. 341-351.

Rucklehaus, M.H., 1998. Spatial scale of genetic structure and an indirect estimate of gene flow in eelgrass, Zostera marina. Evolution, 52, 330-343

Rudman, B., 2002. Sea slug forum [on-line]., 2004-06-23

Rudman, W.B., 2002b. Rostanga rubra [on-line].,

Rudman, W.B., 2003. Eubranchus farrani [on-line].,

Rudman, W.B., 1999a. Jorunna tomentosa [on-line].,

Rudman, W.B., 1999b. Runcina coronata [on-line].,

Rudman, W.B., 2000. Geitodoris planata [on-line].,

Rudman, W.B., 1999c. Janolus cristatus [on-line].,

Rudman, W.B., 2002. Crimora papillata [on-line]., 2002-09-15

Rudman, W.B., 2001. Goniodoris nodosa [on-line]., 2007-02-27

Rudwick, M.J.S., 1970. Living and fossil brachiopods. London: Hutchinson University Library

Rueda, J. L., Gallardo, H., Luque, V., Lopez, F. J., Lopez-Gonzalez, N., Fernández Salas, L., Díaz-del-Río, V., Magdalena Santana-Cassiano, J., Fraile-Nuez, E. & Vazquez, J-T., 2014. Benthic and demersal communities after the submarine eruption of El Hierro: Spatial patterns of survival and colonization of fauna. IV Congress of Marine Sciences, 2014/06/12/. DOI

Rueda, J. L., Gonzalez-Garcia, E., Marina, P., Oporto, T., Rittierott, C., Lopez-Gonzalez, N., Farias, C., Moreira, J., Lopez, E., Megina, C., Lopez-Gonzalez, P. J., Garcia-Raso, J. E., Gofas, S., Salas, C., Bruque, Gerardo, Lopez, Francisco, Vazquez, Juan-Tomas, Fernandez-Salas, L. M. & Diaz-Del-Rio, I., 2012. Biodiversity and geodiversity in the mud volcano field of the Spanish margin (Gulf of Cádiz). Simpósio sobre a Margem Ibérica Atlântica, 2012/12/16/20.

Rueda, J.L., González-García, E., Krutzky, C., López-Rodriguez, F.J., Bruque, G., López-González, N., Palomino, D., Sánchez, R.F., Vázquez, J.T., Fernández-Salas, L.M. & Díaz-del-Río, V., 2016. From chemosynthesis-based communities to cold-water corals: Vulnerable deep-sea habitats of the Gulf of Cádiz. Marine Biodiversity, 46 (2), 473-482. DOI

Rueda, J.L., Urra, J., Gofas, S., Lopez-Gonzalez, N., Fernandez-Salas, L.M. & Diaz-Del-Rio, V., 2012. New records of recently described chemosymbiotic bivalves for mud volcanoes within the European waters (Gulf of Cádiz). Mediterranean Marine Science, 13 (2), 262-267. DOI

Rueness, J., 2005. Life history and molecular sequences of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), a new introduction to European waters.

Rueness, J. and Åsen, P.A., 1982. Field and culture observations on the life history of Bonnemaisonia asparagoides (Woodw.) C. Ag.(Rhodophyta) from Norway. Botanica marina, 25(12), 577-588.

Rueness, J., 1973. Pollution effects on littoral algal communities in the inner Oslofjord, with special reference to Ascophyllum nodosum. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 24, 446-454.

Rueness, J., 1989. Sargassum muticum and other introduced Japanese macroalgae: biological pollution of European coasts. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 20 (4), 173-176.

Rueness J., 1977. Marine algae of Norway. Oslo, Universitetsforlaget.

Rueness, J., Mathisen, H. & Tananger, T., 1987. Culture and field observations on Gracilaria verrucosa (Huds.) Papenf.(Rhodophyta) from Norway. Botanica Marina, 30 (3), 267-276.

Ruff, S.E., Biddle, J.F., Teske, A.P., Knittel, K., Boetius, A. & Ramette, A., 2015. Global dispersion and local diversification of the methane seep microbiome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112 (13), 4015-4020. 10.1073/pnas.1421865112

Rugg, D. & Norton, T., 1987. Pelvetia canaliculata, a high-shore seaweed that shuns the sea. Plant Life in Aquatic and Amphibious Habitats Special publications of the British Ecological Society, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 0262-7027, pp.

Ruiz, J. M., Perez, M. & Romero, J., 2001. Effects of fish farm loadings on seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) distribution, growth and photosynthesis. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42 (9), 749-760. DOI

Ruiz, J., Bryan, G. & Gibbs, P., 1994. Chronic toxicity of water tributyltin(TBT) and copper to spat of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana: Ecological implications. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 113 (1), 105-117.

Ruiz, J.M., Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., 1994b. Bioassaying the toxicity of tributyltin-(TBT)-polluted sediment to spat of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 113 (1-2), 119-130. DOI

Ruiz, J.M., Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., 1995. Acute and chronic toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) to pediveliger larvae of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Marine Biology, 124 (1), 119-126. DOI

Ruiz, J.M., Bryan, G.W. & Gibbs, P.E., 1995c. Effects of tributyltin (TBT) exposure on the veliger larvae development of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (da Costa). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 186 (1), 53-63. DOI

Ruiz, J.M., Bryan, G.W., Wigham, G.D. & Gibbs, P.E., 1995b. Effects of tributyltin (TBT) exposure on the reproduction and embryonic development of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Marine Environmental Research, 40 (4), 363-379. DOI

Ruiz, J.M., Bryan, G.W., Wigham, G.D. & Gibbs, P.E., 1996. Effects of copper on the 48-H embryonic development of the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 76 (3), 829-832. DOI

Ruíz, M., Darriba, S., Rodriguez, R., Iglesias, D., Lee, R., and Lopez, C., 2011. Viral basophilic inclusions in the digestive gland of razor clams Ensis arcuatus (Pharidae) in Galicia (NW Spain). Diseases of Aquatic Organims, 94, 239-241.

Ruiz-Ramos, D.V., Fisher, C.R. & Baums, I.B., 2017. Stress response of the black coral Leiopathes glaberrima when exposed to sub-lethal amounts of crude oil and dispersant. Elementa. Science of the Anthropocene, 5 (0), 77. DOI

Ruiz-Ramos, D.V., Saunders, M., Fisher, C.R. & Baums, I.B., 2015. Home Bodies and Wanderers: Sympatric Lineages of the Deep-Sea Black Coral Leiopathes glaberrima. PLOS ONE, 10 (10), e0138989. DOI

Rumbold, D.G. & Snedaker, S.C., 1997. Evaluation of Bioassays to Monitor Surface Microlayer Toxicity in Tropical Marine Waters. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 32 (2), 135-140. DOI

Rumohr H., Ehrich S., Knust R., Kujawsik T., Philippart C.J.M. & Schroeder A. (1998). Long term trends in demersal fish and benthic invertebrates. In The effects of different types of fisheries on the North Sea and Irish Sea benthic ecosystems. IMPACT-II. NIOZ-RAPPORT 1998-1. (eds. H.J. Linderboom & S.J. de Groot), pp. 404. Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel.

Rumohr, H. & Krost, P., 1991. Experimental evidence of damage to benthos by bottom trawling with special reference to Arctica islandica. Meeresforschung, 33 (4), 340-345.

Rumohr, H. & Kujawski, T., 2000. The impact of trawl fishery on the epifauna of the southern North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, 1389-1394.

Ruppert, E.E. & Barnes, R.D., 1994. Invertebrate zoology (6th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Saunders College Publishing.

Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R. S., Barnes, R.D. 2004. Invertebrate zoology : a functional evolutionary approach, 7th ed. Belmont, CA :: Thomson-Brooks/Cole.

Ruso, Y.D.P., la Ossa Carretero, J.A.D., Casalduero, F.G. & Lizaso, J.L.S., 2007. Spatial and temporal changes in infaunal communities inhabiting soft-bottoms affected by brine discharge. Marine environmental research, 64 (4), 492-503.

Russell, F.E., 1984. Marine toxins and venomous and poisonous marine plants and animals (Invertebrates). Advances in Marine Biology, 21, 59-217.

Russell, F.S., 1973. A summary of the observations on the occurrence of planktonic stages of fish off Plymouth 1924-1972. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 53, 347-355.

Russell, F.S., 1927. The vertical distribution of marine macroplankton. V. The distribution of animals caught in the ring-trawl in daytime in the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 14, 557-607.

Russell, F.S., 1976. The eggs and planktonic stages of British marine fishes.

Russell, F.S., 1970. The medusae of the British Isles. Vol II - Pelagic Scyphozoa, with a supplement to the first volume on hydromedusae. Cambridge University Press

Russell, F.S., 1953. The medusae of the British Isles. Vol.I - Anthomedusae, Leptomedusae, Limnomedusae, Trachymedusae, and Narcomedusae. Cambridge University Press.

Russell, G., 1990. Age and stage in seaweed populations: A cautionary tale. British Phycological Journal, 25 (3), 245-249.

Russell, G. & Veltkamp, C.J., 1984. Epiphyte survival on skin-shedding macrophytes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 18, 149-153.

Russell, G., 1985. Some anatomical and physiological differences in Chorda filum from coastal waters of Finland and Great Britain. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 65, 343-349.

Russell, G., 1991. Environmental constraints on microevolution in Prasiola stipitata s. lat. (Prasiolales: Chlorophyta). Nordic Journal of Botany, 11 (4), 487-492.

Russell, M., 2013. Echinoderm Responses to Variation in Salinity. Advances in Marine Biology, 66, 171-212. DOI

Russell, P.J.C. & Petersen, G.H., 1973. The use of ecological data in the elucidation of some shallow water European Cardium species. Malacologia, 14, 223-232.

Russell, R.D., 1938. Effects of transportation on sedimentary particles. Part 1. Transportation. Recent Marine Sediments, a Symposium (ed. P.D. Trask), pp. 32-47. Dover Publications, Inc.

Russell-Hunter, W., 1949. The structure and behaviour of Hiatella gallicana (Lamarck) and Hiatella arctica (L.), with special reference to the boring habitat. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 3, 271-289.

Russell-Hunter, W.D., 1979. A life of Invertebrates. London: Collier Macmillan Publishers.

Rutherford, R.J., 2000. Periwinkle: environment habitat quality., 2000-05-17

Rutt, G.P., Levell, D., Hobbs, G., Rostron, D.M., Bullimore, B., Law, R.J. & Robinson, A.W., 1998. The effects on the marine benthos. In R. Edwards & H. Sime, (Ed.) The Sea Empress oil spill. p.189-206. Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management.

Ruus, A., Green, N.W., Maage, A. & Skei, J., 2006. PCB-containing paint and plaster caused extreme PCB-concentrations in biota from Sørfjord (Western Norway) - a case study. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52, 100-103.

Ryan, P., 1974. The Fish of Lake Ellesmere, Canterbury. Mauri Ara, 2, 131-136.

Ryan, T.P., McMahon, C.A., Dowdall, A., Fegan, M., Sequeira, S., Murray, M., McKittrick, L., Hayden, E., Wong, J. & Colgan, P.A., 2003. Radioactivity monitoring of the marine environment 2000 and 2001. , Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland.,

Rye, H., Reed, M., Durgut, I., D.Ø. Eriksen, Sidhu, R., Strålberg, E., Iden, K.I., Ramsøy, T., Hylland, K., Ruus, A., Rø yset, O. & Berntsen, M.H.G., 2009. Enhanced levels of 226Ra radiation in sea water and sediment caused by discharges of produced water on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Radioprotection, 44(5), 53-58.

Rygg, B., 1970. Studies on Cerastoderma edule (L.) and Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret). Sarsia, 43, 65-80.

Rygg, B., 1985. Effect of sediment copper on benthic fauna. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 25, 83-89.

Ryland, J.S., 1997. Reproduction in Zoanthidea (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). Invertebrate Reproduction & Development, 31 (1-3), 177-188. DOI

Ryland, J.S. & Ajayi, T.O., 1982. Growth and population dynamics of three Raja species (Batoidei) in Carmarthen Bay, British Isles ICES Journal of Marine Science, 41 (2), 111-120.

Ryland, J.S. & Bishop, J.D.D., 1993. Internal fertilization in hermaphroditic colonial invertebrates. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 31, 445-477.

Ryland, J.S. & De Putron, S., 1998. An appraisal of the effects of the Sea Empress oil spillage on sensitive invertebrate communities. Countryside Council for Wales Sea Empress Contract Report, no. 285, 97pp.

Ryland, J.S. & Hayward, P.J. 1977. British anascan bryozoans. London: Academic Press. Synopses of the British Fauna no. 10.

Ryland, J.S., 1970. Bryozoans. London: Hutchinson University Library.

Ryland, J.S., 1967. Polyzoa. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 5, 343-369.

Ryland, J.S., 1977. Taxes and tropisms of Bryozoans. In Biology of bryozoans (ed. R.M. Woollacott & R.L. Zimmer), pp. 411-436.

Ryland, J.S., 1976. Physiology and ecology of marine bryozoans. Advances in Marine Biology, 14, 285-443.

Ryland, J.S., 2000. Reproduction in British zoanthids, and an unusual process in Parazoanthus anguicomus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80, 943-944.

Ryland, J.S., 1965. Polyzoa. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

Ryland, J.S., Holt, R., Loxton, J., Spencer Jones, M. & Porter, J.S., 2014. First occurrence of the non-native bryozoan Schizoporella japonica Ortmann (1890) in Western Europe. Zootaxa, 3780 (3), 481-502.

Ryther, J.H., de Boer, J.A. & Lapointe, B.E., 1979. Cultivation of seaweeds for hydrocolloids, waste treatment and biomass for energy conservation. In Proceedings of the IXth International Seaweed Symposium (ed. A. Jenson & J.R. Stein), pp. 1-16., Prinstown: Science Press.