Bibliography (A-Z)

Pérès, J.M., 1943. Recherches sur le sang et les organes neuraux des Tuniciers. Annales de l’Institut Oceanographique (Monaco), 21, 229-359.

Pérez-Losada, M., Guerra, A. & Sanjuan, A., 1999. Allozyme differentiation in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean. Heredity, 83, 280-289.

Pérez-Losada, M., Guerra, A., Carvalho, G.R., Sanjuan, A. & Shaw, P.W., 2002. Extensive population subdivision of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) around the Iberian Peninsula indicated by microsatellite DNA variation. Heredity, 89, 417.

Jumars, P. A., et al. (2015). "Diet of Worms Emended: An Update of Polychaete Feeding Guilds." Annual Review of Marine Science 7(1): 497-520. DOI:

Paavo, B., Jonker, R., Thrush, S. & Probert, P.K., 2011. Macrofaunal community patterns of adjacent coastal sediments with wave-reflecting or wave-dissipating characteristics. Journal of Coastal Research, 27 (3), 515-528.

Pacey, A., 2000. Sperm motility in Arenicola marina (L.).[On-line] , 2000-10-02

Pachauri, R.K., Allen, M.R., Barros, V.R., Broome, J., Cramer, W., Christ, R., Church, J.A., Clarke, L., Dahe, Q., Dasgupta, P., Dubash, N.K., Edenhofer, O., Elgizouli, I., Field, C.B., Forster, P., Friedlingstein, P., Fuglestvedt, J., Gomez-Echeverri, L., Hallegatte, S., Hegerl, G., Howden, M., Jiang, K., Jimenez Cisneroz, B., Kattsov, V., Lee, H., Mach, K.J., Marotzke, J., Mastrandrea, M.D., Meyer, L., Minx, J., Mulugetta, Y., O'Brien, K., Oppenheimer, M., Pereira, J.J., Pichs-Madruga, R., Plattner, G.K., Pörtner, H.-O., Power, S.B., Preston, B., Ravindranath, N.H., Reisinger, A., Riahi, K., Rusticucci, M., Scholes, R., Seyboth, K., Sokona, Y., Stavins, R., Stocker, T.F., Tschakert, P., van Vuuren, D. & van Ypserle, J.P., 2014. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,  Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC. Available from:

Packham, J.R. & Liddle, M.J., 1970. The Cefni salt marsh, Anglesey, and its recent development. Field Studies, 3, 331-356.

Packham, J.R. & Willis, A.J., 1997. Ecology of Dunes, Salt Marsh and Shingle. London: Chapman & Hall.

Padilla, D.K., 2010. Context-dependent impacts of a non-native ecosystem engineer, the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 50 (2), 213-225.

Padilla, D.K., 1984. The importance of form: differences in competitive ability, resistance to consumers and environmental stress in an assemblage of coralline algae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 79, 105-127.

Padilla, D.K., Dittman, D.E., Franz, J. & Sladek, R., 1996. Radular production rates in 2 species of Lacuna, Turton (Gastropoda: Littorinidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 62, 275-280.

Page, C., 1988. The chromosome complement of Nucella lapillus (L.), Mollusca: Gastropoda: Prosobranchia. Caryologia, 41, 79-91.

Page, F.H. & Frank, K.T., 1989. Spawning time and egg stage duration in Northwest Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) stocks with emphasis on Georges and Brown Bank. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 46(Suppl. 1), 68-81.

Page, H. & Hubbard, D., 1987. Temporal and spatial patterns of growth in mussels Mytilus edulis on an offshore platform: relationships to water temperature and food availability. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 111: 159-79

Pagett, R.M., 1981. The penetration of brackish-water by the Echinodermata. In Feeding and Survival Strategies of Estuarine Organisms (ed. N.V. Jones & W.J. Wolff), 15, 135-151. New York: Plenum Press.

Pagett, R.M., 1980. Tolerance to brackish water by ophiuroids with special reference to a Scottish sea loch, Loch Etive. In Echinoderms: Past and Present (ed. M. Jangoux), pp. 223-229. Rotterdam: Balkema.

Pahl, B.C. & Opitz, H.M., 1999. The effects of cypermethrin (Excis) and azamethiphos (Salmosan) on lobster Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards larvae in a laboratory study. Aquaculture Research, 30 (9), 655-665. DOI

Paine, R.T. & Levin, S.A., 1981. Intertidal landscapes: disturbance and the dynamics of pattern. Ecological Monographs, 51, 145-178.

Paine, R.T., 1976. Biological observations on a subtidal Mytilus californianus bed. Veliger, 19, 125-130.

Pajic, I., Kljajic, Z., Dogovic, N., Sladic, D., Juranic, Z. & Gasic, M.J., 2002. A novel lectin from the sponge Haliclona cratera: isolation, characterization and biological activity. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 132 (2), 213-221.

Pakkasmaa, S. & Piironen, J., 2000. Water velocity shapes juvenile salmonids. Evolutionary Ecology, 14 (8), 721-730. DOI

Palacios, S. & Zimmerman, R., 2007. Response of eelgrass Zostera marina to CO2 enrichment: Possible impacts of climate change and potential for remediation of coastal habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 344, 1-13. DOI

Palacı́n, C., Giribet, G., Carner, S., Dantart, L. & Turon, X., 1998. Low densities of sea urchins influence the structure of algal assemblages in the western Mediterranean. Journal of Sea Research, 39 (3), 281-290.

Palanques, A., Guillén, J. & Puig, P., 2001. Impact of bottom trawling on water turbidity and muddy sediment of an unfished continental shelf. Limnology and Oceanography, 46, 1100-1110.

Palanques, A., Guillén, J. & Puig, P., 2001. Impact of bottom trawling on water turbidity and muddy sediment of an unfished continental shelf. Limnology and Oceanography, 46, 1100-1110.

Palero, F., Abelló, P., Macpherson, E., Beaumont, M. & Pascual, M., 2011. Effect of oceanographic barriers and overfishing on the population genetic structure of the European spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 104, 407-418

Palerud, R., Gulliksen, B., Brattegard, T., Sneli, J.-A. & Vader, W., 2004. The marine macro-organisms in Svalbard waters. A catalogue of the terrestrial and marine animals of Svalbard. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter, 201, 5-56.

Palgan, K., Drewa, G. & Zbytniewski, Z., 1988. Influence of light, heavy and crude oil on the mortality of shrimps Crangon crangon L. under laboratory conditions. Kieler Meeresforschungen, Sonderheft, 6, 448-453.

Pallas, P.S., 1831. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium animalium in extenso Imperio Rossico et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones anatomen atque icones plurimorum. Volume 3., pp. i-vii + 1-428 + index (I-CXXV). Petropoli: Academiae Scientiarum.

Palma, J., Magalhães, M., Correia, M. & Andrade, J.P., 2019. Effects of anthropogenic noise as a source of acoustic stress in wild populations of Hippocampus guttulatus in the Ria Formosa, south Portugal. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 29 (5), 751-759. DOI

Palmegiano, G.B. & D'Apote, M.P., 1983. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.) hatching. Aquaculture, 35, 259-264.

Palmer, A.R., 1990. Predator size, prey size, and the scaling of vulnerability: hatchling gastropods vs. barnacles. Ecology, 71, 759-775.

Palmer, B.L. & Sideman, E.J., 1988. A field investigation into the effects of interspecific competition on the distribution and cover of Ulothrix flacca. Hydrobiologia, 157 (2), 97-104.

Palmer, D., 2004. Growth of the razor clam Ensis directus, an alien species in the Wash on the east coast of England. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 84 (5), 1075-1076.

Palmer, D.L., Burnett, K., Whelpdale, P., 2007. Baseline Survey of Shellfish Resources in Lough Foyle. CEFAS,  C2697, pp

Palmer, M., Howard, T., Tinker, J., Lowe, J., Bricheno, L., Calvert, D., Edwards, T., Gregory, J., Harris, G., Krijnen, J., Pickering, M., Roberts, C. & Wolf, J., 2018. UKCP18 Marine Report. Met Office, The Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK, 133 pp. Available from

Palmer, R.A., 1984. Species cohesiveness and genetic control of shell color and form in Thais emarginata (Prosobranchia, Muricacea): Preliminary results. Malacologia, 25, 477-491.

Pampoulie, C., Bouchereau, J.L. & Rosecchi, E., 2000. Annual variations in the reproductive traits of Pomatoschistus microps in a Mediterranean lagoon undergoing environmental changes: evidence of phenotypic plasticity. Journal of Fish Biology, 57, 1441-1452

Pampoulie, C., Lambert, A., Rosecchi, E., Crivelli, A.J., Bouchereau, J.-L. & Morand, S., 2000b. Host death: A necessary condition for the transmission of Aphalloides coelomicola Dollfus, Chabaud, and Golvan, 1957 (Digenea, Cryptogonimidae)? Journal of Parasitology, 86, 416-417.

Pampoulie, C., Rosecchi, E. & Bouchereau, J.L., 1999. Life history traits of Pomatoschistus minutus in the Rhone Delta, France. Journal of Fish Biology, 55, 4, 892-896.

Pan, J.F., Buffet, P.E., Poirier, L., Amiard-Triquet, C., Gilliland, D., Joubert, Y., Pilet, P., Guibbolini, M., de Faverney, C.R., Romeo, M., Valsami-Jones, E. & Mouneyrac, C., 2012. Size dependent bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of gold nanoparticles in an endobenthic invertebrate: The Tellinid clam Scrobicularia plana. Environmental Pollution, 168, 37-43. DOI

Panayotidis, P., Montesanto, B. & Orfanidis, S., 2004. Use of low-budget monitoring of macroalgae to implement the European Water Framework Directive. Journal of Applied Phycology, 16 (1), 49-59.

Pang, S. & Lüning, K., 2004. Tank cultivation of the red alga Palmaria palmata: Effects of intermittent light on growth rate, yield and growth kinetics. Journal of Applied Phycology, 16 (2), 93-99.

Pannacciulli, F.G. & Relini, G., 2000. The vertical distribution of Chthamalus montagui and Chthamalus stellatus (Crustacea, Cirripedia) in two areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea. Hydrobiologia, 426, 105-112.

Pansch, C., Scotti, M., Barboza, F.R., Al-Janabi, B., Brakel, J., Briski, E., Bucholz, B., Franz, M., Ito, M., Paiva, F., Saha, M., Sawall, Y., Weinberger, F. & Wahl, M., 2018. Heat waves and their significance for a temperate benthic community: A near-natural experimental approach. Global Change Biology, 24 (9), 4357-4367. DOI

Pantazis, P., Black, K.D., Connolly, J.G. & Kelly, M.S., 2000. The effect of artificial diets on growth, lipid utilisation and gonad biochemistry in the adult sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Journal of Shellfish Research, 19, 995 - 1002.

Panti, C., Giannetti, M., Baini, M., Rubegni, F., Minutoli, R. & Fossi, M.C., 2015. Occurrence, relative abundance and spatial distribution of microplastics and zooplankton NW of Sardinia in the Pelagos Sanctuary Protected Area, Mediterranean Sea. Environmental chemistry (Online), 12 (5), 618-626.

Papaspyrou, S., Gregersen, T., Cox, R.P., Thessalou-Legaki, M. & Kristensen, E., 2005. Sediment properties and bacterial community in burrows of the ghost shrimp Pestarella tyrrhena (Decapoda: Thalassinidea). Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 38 (2), 181-190.

Papathanasiou, Vasillis, Orfanidis, Sotiris & Brown, Murray T., 2015. Intra-specific responses of Cymodocea nodosa to macro-nutrient, irradiance and copper exposure. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 469, 113-122. DOI

Papathanassiou, E., 1985. Effects of cadmium ions on the ultrastructure of the gills cells of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon L. Crustaceana, 48, 6-17.

Papoutsi, O. & Galinou-Mitsoudi, S., 2010. Preliminary results of population dynamics, age and growth of Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus, 1767) in Thermaikos gulf (Greece).  14th Panellenic Congress of Ichthyologists: Fisheries - Aquaculture, a multidimensional approach. Proceedings Panellenic Ichthyological Association, Athens (Greece), Piraeus, 6-9 May 2010., May 2010, pp. 131-134.

Parapar, Julio, Martínez, Alejandro & Moreira, Juan, 2021. On the Systematics and Biodiversity of the Opheliidae and Scalibregmatidae. Diversity, 13 (2), 87. DOI:

Parchevskij, V.P. & Rabinovich, M.A., 1991. Growth rate and harvest of the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis on artificial substrates in sewage and waste water effluents. Biologiya Morya, 2, 1991.

Pardal, M.A., Marques, J.-C. & Bellan, G., 1993. Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of subtidal polychaete populations in the Mondego estuary (western Portugal). Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 34, 497-512.

Pardo, C., Guillemin, M.-L., Peña, V., Bárbara, I., Valero, M. & Barreiro, R., 2019. Local Coastal Configuration Rather Than Latitudinal Gradient Shape Clonal Diversity and Genetic Structure of Phymatolithon calcareum Maerl Beds in North European Atlantic. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6 (149). DOI

Park, J., Kim, J., Kong, J.-A., Depuydt, S., Brown, M. & Han, T., 2017. Implications of rising temperatures for gametophyte performance of two kelp species from Arctic waters. Botanica Marina, 60. DOI

Parke, M. & Dixon, P.S., 1976. Check-list of British Marine Algae - Third Revision. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 56, 527-594.

Parke, M., 1948. Studies on British Laminariaceae. I. Growth in Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lamour. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 27, 651-709.

Parker, A.R., McPhedran, R.C., McKenzie, D.R., Botten, L.C. & Nicorovici, N.-A.P., 2001. Aphrodite's iridescence. Nature, 409, 36-37.

Parker, D.E., Legg, T.P. & Folland, C.K., 1992. A new daily central England temperature series, 1772–1991. International Journal of Climatology, 12 (4), 317-342. DOI

Parker, H., 1981. Influence of relative water motion on the growth, ammonium uptake and carbon and nitrogen composition of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta). Marine Biology, 63 (3), 309-318.

Parker, H., 1982. Effects of simulated current on the growth rate and nitrogen metabolism of Gracilaria tikvahiae (Rhodophyta). Marine Biology, 69 (2), 137-145.

Parker, H.W. & Boeseman, M., 1954. The Basking Shark, Cetorhinus maximus, in winter. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 124 (1), 185-194.

Parker, H.W. & Stott, F.C., 1965. Age size and vertebral calcification in the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus). Zoologische Mededelingen, 40, 305-319.

Parker, J. F., Wuttig, K., Taras, B. 2004. Abundance and age and length composition of Arctic grayling in the Goodpaster River in 2004. Fishery data Series No. 07-73. Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game

Parker, M. & West, B., 1979. The natural history of Neomysis integer (Leach) in Lough Furnace, Co. Mayo, a brackish lough on the west coast of Ireland. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 8, 157-167.

Parker, M., 1979. Neomysis integer (Leach) (Crustacea: Mysidacea): Records and distribution in Ireland. Irish Naturalists' Journal, 19, 339-342.

Parker, N.R., Mladenov, P.V. & Grange, K.R., 1997. Reproductive biology of the antipatharian black coral Antipathes fiordensis in Doubtful Sound, Fiordland, New Zealand. Marine Biology, 130 (1), 11-22. DOI

Parker, T., Johnson, C. & Chapman, A.R.O., 1993. Gammarid amphipods and littorinid snails have significant but different effects on algal succession in littoral fringe tidepools. Ophelia, 38, 69-88.

Parmentier, J., 1998. Growth of a Starfish: development of the larvae of an echinoderm., 2001-02-01

Parr, W., Clarke, S.J., Van Dijk, P., Morgan, N., 1998. Turbidity in English and Welsh tidal waters. Report No. CO 4301/1 to English Nature.

Parrish, F.A. & Oliver, T.A., 2020. Comparative Observations of Current Flow, Tidal Spectra, and Scattering Strength in and Around Hawaiian Deep-Sea Coral Patches. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, 310. DOI

Parry, G.D. & Cohen, B.F., 2001. Exotic species established in Western Port, including an assessment of the status of the exotic species Corbula gibba, Alexandrium spp, Gymnodinium spp and Undaria pinnatifida. Report No. 45 [On-line], 2004-01-28

Parry, H., & Pipe, R., 2004. Interactive effects of temperature and copper on immunocompetence and disease susceptibility in mussels (Mytilus edulis). Aquatic Toxicology 69: 311-25

Parry, M.E.V., Howell, K.L. , Narayanaswamy, B.E. , Bett, B.J., Jones, D.O.B.,Hughes, D.J., Piechaud, N., Nickell, T.D., Ellwood, H., Askew, N., Jenkins, C. & Manca, E., 2015. A Deep-sea section for the Marine Habitat Classification of Britain and Ireland. JNCC report 530. ISSN 0963 8901 In: JNCC (2015) The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Version 15.03. [Date accessed]. Available from:

Parslow, J.L.F., 1973. Mercury in waders from the Wash. Environmental Pollution, 5, 295-304.

Parslow-Williams, P., Goodheir, C., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Taylor, A.C., 2002. Feeding energetics of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland. Ophelia, 56, 101-120.

Parslow-Williams, P.J., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Taylor, A.C., 2001. Nucleic acids as indicators of nutritional condition in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 211, 235-243.

Pasche, D., Horbelt, N., Marin, F., Motreuil, S., Macias-Sanchez, E., Falini, G., Hwang, D. S., Fratzl, P. & Harrington, M. J., 2018. A new twist on sea silk: the peculiar protein ultrastructure of fan shell and pearl oyster byssus. Soft Matter, 14 (27), 5654-5664. DOI

Pascoe, P.L. & Dixon, D.R., 1994. Structural chromosomal polymorphism in the dog-whelk Nucella lapillus (Mollusca: Neogastropoda). Marine Biology, 118, 247-253.

Pascoe, P.L., 2002. Chromosomal variation in Nucella lapillus (L.) and other muricid gastropods. , PhD thesis, University of Plymouth.

Pascoe, P.L., Patton, S.J., Critcher, R. & Dixon, D.R. 1996. Robertsonian polymorphism in the marine gastropod, Nucella lapillus: advances in karyology using rDNA loci and NORs. Chromosoma, 104, 455-460.

Pascual. E., 1978. Crecimiento y alimentación de tres generaciones de Sepia officinalis en cultivo. Invest Pesqu, 42, 421-441.

Pastor. R., 1971. Distribución del erizo de mar, Paracentrotus lividus (Lmk), en la Ría de Vigo. Publ Técn Dir Gen Pesca Marít, Spain, 9, 255-270.

Patel, B. & Crisp, D. J., 1960. The influence of temperature on the breeding and the moulting activities of some warm-water species of operculate barnacles. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 36, 667-680.

Patel, B. & Crisp, D.J., 1960. Rates of development of the embryos of several species of barnacles. Physiology and Zoology, 33, 104-119.

Paterson, D.M. & Hagerthey, S.E., 2001. Microphytobenthos in contrasting coastal ecosystems: biology and dynamics. In Ecological comparisons of sedimentary shores (pp. 105-125). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Pathmanaban, O.N., Porter, J.S. and White, I.R., 2005. Dogger Bank itch in the eastern English Channel: a newly described geographical distribution of an old problem. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 30, 622-626.

Patrick, F.M. & Loutit, M., 1976. Passage of metals in effluents through bacteria to higher organisms. Water Research, 10, 333-335.

Patrick, F.M. & Loutit, M., 1978. Passage of metals to freshwater fish from their food. Water Research, 12, 395-398.

Patten, K., 2003. Persistence and non-target impact of imazapyr associated with smooth cordgrass control in an estuary. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 41, 1-6.

Patzold, J., Ristedt, H. & Wefer, G., 1987. Rate of growth and longevity of a large colony of Pentapora foliacea (Bryozoa) recorded in their oxygen isotope profiles. Marine Biology, 96, 535-538.

Paul, J.D. & Davies, I.M., 1986. Effects of copper-and tin-based anti-fouling compounds on the growth of scallops (Pecten maximus) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Aquaculture, 54, 191-203.

Paulet, Y.M., Lucas, A. & Gerard, A., 1988. Reproduction and larval development in two Pecten maximus (L.) populations from Brittany. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 119, 145-156.

Pauley, G.B., B. van der Raay, and D Troutt 1988. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. (Pacific Northwest) - - Pacific oyster. [online], 2002-01-30

Paulij, W.P., Bogaards, R.H. & Denuce, J.M., 1990. Influence of salinity on embryonic development and the distribution of Sepia officinalis in the Delta Area (South Western part of The Netherlands). Marine Biology, 107, 17-23.

Paulij, W.P., Herman, P.M.J., Roozen, M.E.F. & Denuce, J.M., 1991. The influence of photoperiodicity on hatching of Sepia officinalis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 71, 665-678.

Pauly, D., 1978. A critique of some literature data on the growth, reproduction and mortality of the lamnid shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus). International Council for the Exploration of the Sea CM, 978, 1-10.

Pauly, D., 1997. Growth and mortality of the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and their implications for management of whale sharks Rhincodon typus. In Elasmobranch Biodiversity, Conservation and Management: Proceedings of the International Seminar and Workshop, Sabah, Malaysia, (eds. S.L. Fowler, T.M. Reed, & F.A. Dipper) pp. 199-208. IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Available from

Pauly, D., 1997. Growth and mortality of the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and their implications for management of whale sharks Rhincodon typus.  2002). Elasmobranch Biodiversity, Conservation and Management: Proceedings of the International Seminar and Workshop, Sabah, Malaysia,  pp. 309-331.

Pawlik, J.R. & Butman, C.A., 1993. Settlement of a marine tube worm as a function of current velocity: Interacting effects of hydrodynamics and behavior. Limnology and Oceanography, 38 (8), 1730-1740.

Pawlik, J.R., 1968. Larval settlement and metamorphosis of gregarious sabellariid polychaetes, Sabellaria alveolata compared with Phragmatopoma californica. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 68, 101-124.

Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Fahrni, J. & Richardson, S.L., 2003. Small Subunit Ribosomal DNA Suggests that the Xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a Foraminiferan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 50 (6), 483-487. DOI

Pawson, D.L., 1966. Ecology of holothurians. In Physiology of Echinodermata (ed. R.A. Boolootian), pp. 63-71. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Peña V, Bárbara I., 2007a. Maërl community in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula: a review of floristic studies and long-term changes. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 17: 1-2

Peña, V. & Barbera, I., 2007b. Los fondos de maërl en Galicia. Bulletin of the Spanish Society of Phycology, ALGAS, 37: 11-18. [cited 15/02/16]. Available from .

Peña, V., Bárbara, I., Grall, J., Maggs, C.A. & Hall-Spencer, J.M., 2014. The diversity of seaweeds on maerl in the NE Atlantic. Marine Biodiversity, 44 (4), 533-551. DOI: 10.1007/s12526-014-0214-7

Peña, V.B., R., Hall-Spencer, J.M. & Grall, J., 2013. Lithophyllum spp. form unusual maerl beds in the North East Atlantic: the case study of L. fasciculatum in Brittany. An AOD - Les Cahiers Naturalistes de l'Observatoire Marin, 2 (2), 11-22.

Peña. V. & Bárbara. I., 2007a. Maërl community in the northwestern Iberian Peninsula: a review of floristic studies and long-term changes. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 17, 1-28.

Peacock, J.D., 1993. Late Quaternary marine mollusca as palaeoenvironmental proxies: A compilation and assessment of basic numerical data for NE Atlantic species found in shallow water, Quaternary Science Reviews, 12, 263-275

Pearce, B., Fariñas-Franco, J.M., Wilson, C., Pitts, J., deBurgh, A. & Somerfield, P.J., 2014. Repeated mapping of reefs constructed by Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart 1849 at an offshore wind farm site. Continental Shelf Research, 83, 3-13.

Pearce, B., Hill, J.M., Grubb, L., Harper, G., 2011a. Impacts of marine aggregate extraction on adjacent Sabellaria spinulosa aggregations and other benthic fauna. Rep. MEPF 08/P39, The Crown Estate.  DOI

Pearce, B., Hill, J.M., Wilson, C., Griffin, R., Earnshaw, S., Pitts, J. 2011b. Sabellaria spinulosa reef ecology and ecosystem services The Crown Estate. DOI:

Pearce, B., Taylor, J., Seiderer, L.J. 2007. Recoverability of Sabellaria spinulosa Following Aggregate Extraction: Marine Ecological Surveys Limited.

Pearce, C.M., & Scheibling, R.E., 1990. Induction of Metamorphosis of Larvae of the Green Sea Urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, by Coralline Red Algae. Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 179, 304-311.

Pearce, J.B., 1969. Thermal addition and the benthos, Cape Cod Canal. Chesapeake Science, 10 (3), 227-233. DOI

Pearlmutter, N.L. & Vadas, R.L., 1978. Regeneration or thallus fragments of Rhodochorton purpureum (Rhodophyceae, Nemalionales). Phycologia, 17(2), 186-190.

Pearman, T. R. R., Robert, K., Callaway, A., Hall, R., Lo Iacono, C. & Huvenne, V. A. I., 2020. Improving the predictive capability of benthic species distribution models by incorporating oceanographic data – Towards holistic ecological modelling of a submarine canyon. Progress in Oceanography, 184, 102338-102338. DOI

Pearson, C. 2003. The genetic population structure of the lagoon specialists Nematostella vectensisCerastoderma glaucum and Gammarus insensibilis from populations along the souther and eastern coasts of the United Kingdom.Ph.D. Thesis. University of Southampton.

Pearson, C.V.M., Rogers, A.D. & Sheader, M., 2002. The genetic structure of the rare lagoonal sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson (Cnidaria; Anthozoa) in the United Kingdom based on RAPD analysis. Molecular Ecology, 11 (11), 2285-2293.

Pearson, G.A. & Brawley, S.H., 1996. Reproductive ecology of Fucus distichus (Phaeophyceae): an intertidal alga with successful external fertilization. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Oldendorf, 143 (1), 211-223.

Pearson, G.A. & Davison, I.R., 1994. Freezing stress and osmotic dehydration in Fucus distichus (Phaeophyta): evidence for physiological similarity. Journal of Phycology, 30, 257-267.

Pearson, G.A. & Davison, I.R., 1993. Freezing rate and duration determine the physiological response of intertidal fucoids to freezing. Marine Biology, 115, 353-362.

Pearson, G.A., Lago‐Leston, A. & Mota, C., 2009. Frayed at the edges: selective pressure and adaptive response to abiotic stressors are mismatched in low diversity edge populations. Journal of Ecology, 97 (3), 450-462.

Pearson, M. & Pearson, T.H., 1991. Variations in populations of Capitella capitata (Fabricius, 1780) (Polychaeta) from the west coast of Scotland. Ophelia, supplement 5, 363-370.

Pearson, T.H & Eleftheriou, A., 1981. The benthic ecology of Sullom Voe. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (B), 80, 241-269.

Pearson, T.H., 1975. The benthic ecology of Loch Linnhe and Loch Eil, a sea-loch system on the west coast of Scotland. IV. Changes in the benthic fauna attributable to organic enrichment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 20, 1-41.

Pearson, T.H. & Black, K.D., 2001. The environmental impacts of marine fish cage culture. In Black, K.D. (ed.) Environmental impacts of aquaculture, pp. 1-31, Sheffield Academic Press.

Pearson, T.H. & Rosenberg, R., 1978. Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 16, 229-311.

Pearson, T.H. & Rosenberg, R., 1976. A comparative study of the effects on the marine environment of wastes from cellulose industries in Scotland and Sweden. Ambio, 5, 77-79.

Pearson, T.H., 1970. The benthic ecology of Loch Linnhe and Loch Eil, a sea loch system on the west coast of Scotland. 1: The physical environment and distribution of macrobenthic fauna. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 5, 1-34.

Pearson, T.H., Mannvik, Hans-Petter, Evans, R. & Falk-Petersen, Falk. 1996. The benthic communities of the Snorre Field in the Northern North Sea. 1. The distribution and structure of communities in undisturbed sediments. Journal of Sea Research, 35, 301-314.

Peattie, M.E. & Hoare, R., 1981. The sublittoral ecology of the Menai Strait. II. The sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas) and its associated fauna. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 13, 621-635.

Pechenik, J. A., 1991. The Molluscs. In Biology of the invertebrates (2nd edn) pp. 269-34. United States: W. C. Brown.

Pechenik, J. A., Chaparro, O. R., Lazarus, Z. M., Tellado, G. V., Ostapovich, E. M. & Clark, D., 2020. Impact of short-term elevated temperature stress on winter-acclimated individuals of the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata. Marine Environmental Research, 162. DOI

Pechenik, J.A., Fried, B. & Simpkins, H.L., 2001. Crepidula fornicata is not a first intermediate host for trematodes: who is ? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 261, 211-224.

Pechenik, J.A., Hilbish, T.J., Eyster, L.S. & Marshall, D., 1996. Relationship between larval and juvenile growth rates in two marine gastropods, Crepidula plana and C. fornicata. Marine Biology, 125, 119-127.

Peckol, P. & Searles, R.B., 1983. Effects of seasonality and disturbance on population development in a Carolina continental shelf community. Bulletin of Marine Science, 33 (1), 67-86.

Peckol, P., 1988. Physiological and population ecology of intertidal and subtidal Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology, 24, 192-198.

Peckol, P., Levings, S.C. & Garrity, S.D., 1990. Kelp response following the World Prodigy oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 21, 473-476.

Pedersen, M. & Snoeijs, P., 2001. Patterns of macroalgal diversity, community composition and long-term changes along the Swedish west coast. Hydrobiologia, 459 (1-3), 83-102.

Pedersen, M., 2015. Temperature effects on the kelp Saccharina latissimaASLO,  Grenada, Spain,  pp.

Pedersen, M.F. & Borum, J., 1996. Nutrient control of algal growth in estuarine waters. Nutrient limitation and the importance of nitrogen requirements and nitrogen storage among phytoplankton and species of macroalgae. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 142, 262-272.

Pedersen, M.F., Borum, J. & Fotel, L. F., 2009. Phosphorus dynamics and limitation of fast and slow-growing temperate seaweeds in Oslofjord, Norway. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 399, 103-115

Pedersen, M.F., Nejrup, L.B., Fredriksen, S., Christie, H. & Norderhaug, K.M., 2012. Effects of wave exposure on population structure, demography, biomass and productivity of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 451, 45-60.

Pedersen, M.F., Stæhr, P.A., Wernberg, T. & Thomsen, M.S., 2005. Biomass dynamics of exotic Sargassum muticum and native Halidrys siliquosa in Limfjorden, Denmark — implications of species replacements on turnover rates. Aquatic Botany, 83 (1), 31-47.

Pedersen, T. M., Almeda, R., Fotel, F.L., Jakobsen, Hans H., Mariani, P. & Hansen, B.W., 2010. Larval growth in the dominant polychaete Polydora ciliata is food-limited in a eutrophic Danish estuary (Isefjord). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 407, 99-110.

Pedersen, T.F., 1991. Metabolic adaptations to hypoxia of two species of Polychaeta, Nephtys ciliata and Nephtys hombergii. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 161 (2), 213-215.

Pederson, J., Bullock, R., Carlton, J., Dijkstra, J., Dobroski, N., Dyrynda, P., Fisher, R., Harris, L., Hobbs, N. & Lambert, G., 2005. Marine Invaders in the Northeast: Rapid assessment survey of non-native and native marine species of floating dock communities, August 2003. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Sea Grant College Program, pp.

Pedicini, S., 2017. Study into the ecological status of Serpula vermicularis reefs in Loch Creran, Scotland. M.Sc. Thesis, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh. 

Pedrotti, M.L., 1993. Spatial and temporal distribution and recruitment of echinoderm larvae in the Ligurian Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 73, 513-530.

Peer, D., 1970. Relation between biomass, productivity, and loss to predators in a population of a marine benthic polychaete, Pectinaria hyperborea. Journal of the Fisheries Board of Canada, 27 (12), 2143-2153.

Peirano, A., Damasso, V., Montefalcone, M., Morri, C. & Bianchi, C. N., 2005. Effects of climate, invasive species and anthropogenic impacts on the growth of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile in Liguria (NW Mediterranean Sea). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50 (8), 817-822. DOI

Pekkarinen, M., 1983. Seasonal changes in condition and biochemical constituents in the soft parts of Macoma balthica (Lamellibranchiata) in the Trarminne brackish water area (Baltic Sea). Annales Zoologici Fennici, 20, 311-322.

Pellerito, L., Gianguzza, M., Dolcemascolo, G. & Mansueto, C., 1996. Effects of tributyltin (IV) chloride exposure on larvae of Ciona intestinalis (Urochordata): an ultrastructural study. Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 10 (6), 405-413.

Pelseneer, P., 1924. La proportion relative des sexes chez les animaux et particulièrement chez les mollusques: Academie Royale de Belgique. Classe des Sciences Mem Deuxieme Series8, 1-258.

Penfold, R., Hughson, S., & Boyle, N., 1996. The potential for a sea urchin fishery in Shetland., 2000-04-14

Penhallurick, R.D., 1990. Turtles off Cornwall, the Isles of Scilly and Devonshire. Truro: Dyllansow Pengwella.

Pennant, T., 1812. British Zoology volume 4, Crustacea, Mollusca, Testacea. London. London.

Penrose, R.S., 2003. UK & Eire Marine Turtle Strandings & Sightings Annual Report 2002. [On-line]., 2004-12-08

Penry, D.L. & Jumars, P.A., 1990. Gut architecture, digestive constraints and feeding ecology of deposit-feeding and carnivorous polychaetes. Oecologia, 82, 1-11.

Peoples, R.C., 2013. A review of the helminth parasites using polychaetes as hosts. Parasitology Research, 112 (10), 3409-3421.

Peralta, G., Bouma, T.J., van Soelen, J., Pérez-Lloréns, J.L. & Hernández, I., 2003. On the use of sediment fertilization for seagrass restoration: a mesocosm study on Zostera marina L. Aquatic Botany, 75 (2), 95-110.

Peralta, G., Brun, F.G., Perez-Llorens, J. & Bouma, T.J., 2006. Direct effects of current velocity on the growth, morphometry and architecture of seagrasses: a case study on Zostera noltii. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 327, 135.

Peralta, G., Pérez-Lloréns, J.L., Hernández, I. & Vergara, J.J., 2002. Effects of light availability on growth, architecture and nutrient content of the seagrass Zostera noltii Hornem. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 269, 9-26.

Percival, S., Sutherland, W. & Evans, P., 1998. Intertidal habitat loss and wildfowl numbers: applications of a spatial depletion model. Journal of Applied Ecology, 35 (1), 57-63.

Percival, S.M. & Evans, P.R., 1997. Brent geese (Branta bernicla) and Zostera; factors affecting the exploitation of a seasonally declining food resource. Ibis, 139, 121-128.

Pereira, T.R., Engelen, A.H., Pearson, G., Serrão, E., Destombe, C. & Valero, M., 2011. Temperature effects on the microscopic haploid stage development of Laminaria ochroleuca and Sacchoriza polyschides, kelps with contrasting life histories. Cahiers De Biologie Marine, (52), 395-403.

Perez Camacho, A., 1980. Biology of Venerupis pullastra (Montagu, 1803) and Venerupis decussata (Linne, 1767) (Mollusca, Bivalvia). Determining factors of production. Boletin del Instituto Espanol Oceanographica, 5, 43-76.

Perez, R., 1969. Le repeuplement des champs de Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamouroux. Influence comparee de la coupe et de l'arrachage. Science et Peche.

Pérez, R., 1971. Écologie, croissance et régénération, teneurs en acide alginique de Laminaria digitata sur les cotes de la Manche. Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Peches Maritimes, 35, 287-346.

Perez T., Garrabou, J., Sartoretto, S., Harmelin, J.-G., Francour, P. & Vacelet, J., 2000. Mass mortality of marine invertebrates: an unprecedented event in the Northwestern Mediterranean. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences-Series III-Sciences de la Vie, 323 (10), 853-865.

Pérez-Casanovaa, J.C., Risea, M.L., Dixonb, B., Afonsoc, L.O.B., Halla, J.R., Johnsonc, S.C. & Gamperl, A.K., 2008. The immune and stress responses of Atlantic cod to long-term increases in water temperature. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 24(5), 600-609.

Perez-Gomez, J. A., Garcia-Mendoza, E., Olivos-Ortiz, A., Paytan, A., Rebolledo-Vieyra, M., Delgado-Pech, B. & Almazan-Becerril, A., 2020. Indicators of nutrient enrichment in coastal ecosystems of the northern Mexican Caribbean. Ecological Indicators, 118. DOI

Pergent, G., Mendez, S., Pergent-Martini, C. & Pasqualini, V., 1999. Preliminary data on the impact of fish farming facilities on Posidonia oceanica meadows in the Mediterranean. Oceanologica Acta, 22 (1), 95-107.

Perkins, E.J., 1981. Studies in the distribution and biological impact of the effluent released by Thames Board Mills Ltd., Siddick. 5. The bottom fauna of Maryport Roads and Allonby Bay 1962-1978.

Perkins, E.J., 1974. The marine environment. In Biology of plant litter decomposition, Volume 2, (ed. C.H. Dickinson & G.J.F. Pugh), pp. 683-721, London: Academic Press.

Perkins, E.J., 1988. The impact of suction dredging upon the population of cockles Cerastoderma edule in Auchencairn Bay. Report to the Nature Conservancy Council, South-west Region, Scotland, no. NC 232 I).

Perkins, E.J., 1961. The occurrence of the shipworm (Teredo) in the River Blackwater estuary. Laboratory note: Central Electricity Research Laboraties, (RD-L-N 97-61),

Perkol-Finkel, S. & Airoldi, L., 2010. Loss and recovery potential of marine habitats: an experimental study of factors maintaining resilience in subtidal algal forests at the Adriatic Sea. PLoS One, 5 (5), e10791.

Pernet, F., Tremblay, R. & Bourget E., 2003. Settlement success, spatial pattern and behavior of mussel larvae Mytilus spp. in experimentaldownwelling'systems of varying velocity and turbulence. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 260, 125-140.

Perrin, C., Daguin, C., Vliet, M.V.D., Engel, C.R., Pearson, G.A. & Serrão, E.A., 2007. Implications of mating system for genetic diversity of sister algal species: Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae). European Journal of Phycology, 42 (3), 219-230.

Perron, F. 1978. The habitat and feeding behaviour of the wentletrap Epitonium greenlandicum.

Perry, M. & Golding, N., 2011. Range of environmental temperature conditions in the United Kingdom Met Office, Exeter, UK, 64 pp. pp.

Perry, R.I. & Neilson, J.D., 1988. Vertical distributions and trophic interactions of age-O Atlantic cod and haddock in mixed and stratified waters of Georges Bank. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 49, 199-214.

Perry, S. L., 2015. Living seas: future fisheries; assessment of welsh fisheries. Report by The Wildlife Trust of south and west Wales. Living Seas Report No: 2, 109pp.

Pertossi, R.M., Brogger, M.I., Penchaszadeh, P.E. & Martinez, M.I., 2019. Reproduction and developmental stages in the crinoid Isometra vivipara Mortensen, 1917 from the southwestern Atlantic. Polar Biology, 42 (4), 807-816. DOI

Perttila, M., Tervo, V. & Parmanne, R., 1982. Heavy metals in Baltic herring and cod. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 13, 391-393.

Pesch, G., Stewart, N. & Pesch, C., 1979. Copper toxicity to the bay scallop (Argopecten irradians). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 23 (1), 759-765.

Pessarrodona, A., Moore, P.J., Sayer, M.D.J. & Smale, D.A., 2018. Carbon assimilation and transfer through kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is diminished under a warmer ocean climate. Global Change Biology, 24 (9), 4386-4398. DOI

Peteiro, C. & Freire, O., 2013. Biomass yield and morphological features of the seaweed Saccharina latissima cultivated at two different sites in a coastal bay in the Atlantic coast of Spain. Journal of Applied Phycology, 25(1), 205-213.

Peteiro, C., Sánchez, N., Dueñas-Liaño, C. & Martínez, B., 2014. Open-sea cultivation by transplanting young fronds of the kelp Saccharina latissima. Journal of Applied Phycology, 26 (1), 519-528.

Peters, A.F. & Schaffelke, B., 1996. Streblonema (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) infection in the kelp Laminaria saccharina in the western Baltic. Hydrobiologia, 326/327, 111-116.

Peters, E.C. & Yevich, P.P., 1989. Histopathology of Ceriantheopsis americanus (Cnidaria: Ceriantharia) exposed to Black Rock. Diseases of aquatic organisms, 7, 137-148

Peters, L., König, G.M., Wright, A.D., Pukall, R., Stackebrandt, E., Eberl, L. & Riedel, K., 2003. Secondary metabolites of Flustra foliacea and their influence on bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 3469-3475.

Petersen, B. & Exo, K.M., 1999. Predation of waders and gulls on Lanice conchilega tidal flats in the Wadden Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 178, 229-240.

Petersen, C.G.J., 1918. The sea bottom and its production of fish food. A survey of the work done in connection with valuation of the Denmark waters from 1883-1917. Report of the Danish Biological Station, 25, 1-62.

Petersen, G.H., 1977. The density, biomass and origin of the bivalves of the central North Sea. Meddeleser fra Danmarks Fiskeri - Og Havundersøgelser, 7, 221-273.

Petersen, J. & Riisgård, H.U., 1992. Filtration capacity of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and its grazing impact in a shallow fjord. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 88, 9-17.

Petersen, J.K., Schou, O., & Thor, P., 1995. Growth and energetics in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 120, 175-184.

Petersen, M.E., 1999. Reproduction and development in Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Biology, 8, 243-259.

Peterson, C.G.J., 1919. On the development of our common gobies (Gobius) from the egg to the adult stages etc. Report of the Danish Biological Station to the Board of Agriculture, 26, 3-16.

Peterson, C.H. & Black, R., 1987. Resource depletion by active suspension feeders on tidal flats: influence of local density and tidal elevation. Limnology and Oceanography, 32 (1), 143-166.

Peterson, C.H. & Black, R., 1991. Preliminary evidence for progressive sestonic food depletion in incoming tide over a broad tidal sand flat. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 32 (4), 405-413.

Peterson, C.H. & Skilleter, G.A., 1994. Control of foraging behaviour of individuals within an ecosystem context: The clam Macoma balthica, flow environment and siphon-cropping fishes. Oecologia, 100, 256-267.

Peterson, C.H., 1977. Competitive organisation of the soft bottom macrobenthic communities of southern California lagoons. Marine Biology, 43, 343-359.

Peterson, C.H., 1991. Intertidal zonation of marine invertebrates in sand and mud. American Scientist, 79, 236-249.

Peterson, C.H., Bishop, M.J., Johnson, G.A., D'Anna, L.M. & Manning, L.M., 2006. Exploiting beach filling as an unaffordable experiment: benthic intertidal impacts propagating upwards to shorebirds. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 338 (2), 205-221.

Peterson, C.H., Hickerson, D.H. & Johnson, G.G., 2000. Short-term consequences of nourishment and bulldozing on the dominant large invertebrates of a sandy beach. Journal of Coastal Research, 368-378.

Peterson, C.H., Summerson, H.C. & Fegley, S.R., 1987. Ecological consequences of mechanical harvesting of clams. Fishery Bulletin, 85 (2), 281-298.

Peterson, C.H., Summerson, H.C., Thomson, E., Lenihan, H.S., Grabowski, J., Manning, L., Micheli, F. & Johnson, G., 2000. Synthesis of linkages between benthic and fish communities as a key to protecting essential fish habitat. Bulletin of Marine Science, 66, 759-774.

Peterson, J.K. & Peterson, G.I., 1990. Tolerance, behaviour and oxygen consumption in the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), exposed to hypoxia. Journal of Fish Biology, 37, 921-933.

Pethick, J., 1984. An introduction to coastal geomorphology. London: Arnold.

Pethick, J., 2001. Coastal management and sea-level rise. Catena, 42 (2), 307-322. DOI

Pethick, J.S., 1996. The geomorphology of mudflat. In Nord-strom, K.F. and Roman, C.T. (eds.). Estuarine Shores: Evolution,Environment and Human Health, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 41-62.

Pethick, J.S. & Crooks, S., 2000. Development of a coastal vulnerability index: a geomorphological perspective. Environmental Conservation, 27 (4), 359-367. DOI

Petpiroon, S. & Dicks, B., 1982. Environmental effects (1969 to 1981) of a refinery effluent discharged into Littlewick Bay, Milford Haven. Field Studies, 5, 623-641.

Petraitis, P.S. & Dudgeon, S.R., 2005. Divergent succession and implications for alternative states on rocky intertidal shores. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 326 (1), 14-26. DOI

Petraitis, P.S., 1987. Immobilization of the predatory gastropod, Nucella lapillus, by its prey Mytilus edulis. Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 172, 307-314.

Petraitis, P.S., 1991. The effects of sex ratio and density on the expression of gender in the polychaete Capitella capitata. Evolutionary Ecology, 5, 393-404.

Petraitis, P.S., Rhile, E.C. & Dudgeon, S., 2003. Survivorship of juvenile barnacles and mussels: spatial dependence and the origin of alternative communities. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 293 (2), 217-236.

Petralia, R.S., Mattson, M.P. & Yao, P.J., 2014. Aging and longevity in the simplest animals and the quest for immortality. Ageing Research Reviews, 16, 66-82. DOI

Petrić, M., Ferri, J. & Mladineo, I., 2010. Growth and reproduction of Munida rutllanti (Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheidae) and impact of parasitism by Pleurocrypta sp. (Isopoda: Bopyridae) in the Adriatic Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 90, 1395-1404. DOI

Petrić, M., Ferri, J., Mladineo, I., 2010. Growth and reproduction of Munida rutllanti (Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheidae) and impact of parasitism by Pleurocrypta sp. (Isopoda: Bopyridae) in the Adriatic Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 90, 1395–1404. DOI

Petrich, S.M. & Reish, D.J., 1979. Effects of aluminium and nickel on survival and reproduction in polychaetous annelids. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 23, 698-702.

Pfeifer, R.F. & McDiffett, W.F., 1975. Some factors affecting primary productivity of stream riffle communities. Archive for Hydrobiology, 75, 306-317.

Pfetzing, J., Stengel, D., Cuffe, M., Savage, A. & Guiry, M., 2000. Effects of temperature and prolonged emersion on photosynthesis, carbohydrate content and growth of the brown intertidal alga Pelvetia canaliculata. Botanica Marina43 (4), 399-407

Pfitzenmeyer, H.T. & Drobeck, K.G., 1967. Some factors influencing reburrowing activity of soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria. Chesapeake Science, 8, 193-199.

Pham, C.K., Diogo, H., Menezes, G., Porteiro, F., Braga-Henriques, A., Vandeperre, F. & Morato, T., 2014. Deep-water longline fishing has reduced impact on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. Scientific Reports, 4, 4837. DOI

Philippart, C.J., Anadón, R., Danovaro, R., Dippner, J.W., Drinkwater, K.F., Hawkins, S.J., Oguz, T., O'Sullivan, G. & Reid, P.C., 2011. Impacts of climate change on European marine ecosystems: observations, expectations and indicators. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 400 (1), 52-69.

Philippart, C.J., van Aken, H.M., Beukema, J.J., Bos, O.G., Cadée, G.C. & Dekker, R., 2003. Climate‐related changes in recruitment of the bivalve Macoma balthica. Limnology and Oceanography, 48 (6), 2171-2185.

Philippart, C.J.M, 1995a. Effect of periphyton grazing by Hydrobia ulvae on the growth of Zostera noltii on a tidal flat in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Marine Biology, 122, 431-437.

Philippart, C.J.M, 1995b. Seasonal variation in growth and biomass of an intertidal Zostera noltii stand in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 33, 205-218.

Philippart, C.J.M, 1994a. Interactions between Arenicola marina and Zostera noltii on a tidal flat in the Wadden Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 111, 251-257.

Philippart, C.J.M, 1994b. Eutrophication as a possible cause of decline in the seagrass Zostera noltii of the Dutch Wadden Sea., 2000-10-23

Philippart, C.J.M., 1998. Long-term impact of bottom fisheries on several by-catch species of demersal fish and benthic invertebrates in the south-eastern North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55 (3), 342-352. DOI

Phillippi, A., Tran, K. & Perna, A., 2014. Does intertidal canopy removal of Ascophyllum nodosum alter the community structure beneath? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 461, 53-60. DOI

Phillips, R.C., McMillan, C. & Bridges, K.W., 1983. Phenology of eelgrass,  Zostera marina  L., along latitudinal gradients in North America. Aquatic Botany, (2), 145-156.

Phillips, B., 2013. Lobsters : Biology, Management, Aquaculture and Fisheries,  Somerset, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated

Phillips, R.C., & Menez, E.G., 1988. Seagrasses. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, no. 34.

Philpots, J.R., 1890. Oysters and all about them. (2 volumes). London: John Richardson & Co.

Phorson, J.E., 1996. Observations on the development of dentition in small juveniles of certain species of Mytilidae. The Conchologists Newsletter, 136, 603-623.

Pianka, E.R., 1970. On r- and K- selection. American Naturalist, 104, 592-597.

Pickering, M.D., Wells, N.C., Horsburgh, K.J. & Green, J.A.M., 2012. The impact of future sea-level rise on the European Shelf tides. Continental Shelf Research, 35, 1-15. DOI

Pickett, G.D., 1973. The impact of mechanised harvesting on the Thames estuary cockle fishery. MAFF Laboratory Leaflet, no. 29, Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft, pp. 9.

Picton, B. & Goodwin, C., 2007. Sponge biodiversity of Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 87 (06), 1441-1458.

Picton, B. E. & Manuel, R.L., 1985. Arachnanthus sarsi Carlgren, 1912: a redescription of a cerianthid anemone new to the British Isles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 83, 343-349.

Picton, B. E. & Morrow, C.C., 1994. A Field Guide to the Nudibranchs of the British Isles. London: Immel Publishing Ltd.

Picton, B.E. 1980. A new species of Coryphella (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) from the British Isles. Irish Naturalists' Journal, 20, 15-19.

Picton, B.E. & Costello, M.J., 1998. BioMar biotope viewer: a guide to marine habitats, fauna and flora of Britain and Ireland. [CD-ROM] Environmental Sciences Unit, Trinity College, Dublin.

Picton, B.E. & Morrow C.C., 2005. Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland, 2008-01-08

Picton, B.E. & Morrow, C.C., 2015. Ascidia mentula O F Müller, 1776. In Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland. [cited 26/01/16]. Available from:

Picton, B.E. & Morrow, C.C. (2004b). Polyclinum aurantium.Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland. Accessed on 2016-06-15

Picton, B.E. & Morrow, C.C. (2004c). Clavelina lepadiformis (O F Müller, 1776). Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland. Accessed on 2016-06-15

Picton, B.E. & Morrow, C.C., 2015b. Amphilectus fucorum (Esper, 1794). [In] Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland. [accessed 24/06/16]

Picton, B.E. & Morrow, C.C., 2016. Corella parallelogramma (O F Müller, 1776). Encyclopedia of marine life of Britain and Ireland, (20.06.2018).

Picton, B.E. & Morrow, C.C.,2016b. Polyclinum aurantium Milne-Edwards, 1841. [In] Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland.Available from Accessed on 2021-04-22

Picton, B.E. & Morrow, C.C., 2000. Encyclopaedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland., 2003-09-18

Picton, B.E. & Morrow, C.C., 2004. Nemertesia ramosa Lamouroux, 1816., 2004-09-14

Picton, B.E., 1993. A field guide to the shallow-water echinoderms of the British Isles. London: Immel Publishing Ltd.

Picton, B.E., 2000. Nudibranchs of the British Isles., 2003-09-11

Picton, B.E., 2001. Cadlina laevis [on-line]., 2007-02-15

Picton, B.E., & Costello, M.J., 2001. BioMar biotope viewer: a guide to marine habitats and fauna of Britain and Ireland., 2001-06-01

Picton, B.E., Emblow, C.S., Morrow, C.C., Sides, E.M. & Costello, M.J., 1994b. Marine communities of the Mulroy Bay and Lough Swill area, north-west Ireland, with an assessment of their nature conservation importance. , Unpublished, Environmental Sciences Unit, Trinity College. (Field Survey Report).

Picton, B.E., Emblow, C.S., Morrow, C.C., Sides, E.M. & Costello, M.J., 1994. Marine communities of the Mulroy Bay and Lough Swilly area, north-west Ireland, with an assessment of their nature conservation importance. Dublin: Unpublished, Environmental Sciences Unit, Trinity College. (Field Survey Report)., Dublin: Unpublished, Environmental Sciences Unit, Trinity College. (Field Survey Report).

Picton, B.E., Morrow, C.C. & van Soest, R.W.B., 2011. [In] Sponges of Britain and Ireland:

Picton, B.E., Morrow, C.C. & van Soest, R.W.B., 2011b. Chelonaplysilla noevus (Carter, 1876). [In] Sponges of Britain and Ireland. Available from  Accessed on 2021-04-22

Pienkowski, M.W., 1983. Surface activity of some intertidal invertebrates in relation to temperature and the foraging behaviour of their shorebird predators. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 11, 141-150.

Pienkowski, M.W., 1982. Diet and energy intake of grey and ringed plovers, Pluvialis squatarola and Charadrius hiaticula, in the non-breeding season. Journal of Zoology, 197, 511-549.

Pierce, G.J., Boyle, P.R., Hastie, L.C. & Shanks, A.M., 1994. Distribution and abundance of the fished population of Loligo forbesii in UK waters: analysis of fishery data. Special Issue: Fishery Biology of Northeast Atlantic Squid, Fisheries Issue, 21, 193-216.

Pierce, S.K., 1970. The water balance of Modiolus (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae): osmotic concentrations in changing salinities. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 36, 521-533.

Pierdomenico, M., Russo, T., Ambroso, S., Gori, A., Martorelli, E., D#&39;Andrea, L., Gili, J-M. & Chiocci, F.L., 2018. Effects of trawling activity on the bamboo-coral Isidella elongata and the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis along the Gioia Canyon (Western Mediterranean, southern Tyrrhenian Sea). Progress in Oceanography, 169, 214-226. DOI

Pierpoint, C. & Penrose, R., 2002. A Database of Marine Turtle Records for the United Kingdom & Eire. [On-line]., 2004-12-08

Piersma, T., Koolhaas, A., Dekinga, A., Beukema, J.J., Dekker, R. & Essink, K., 2001. Long‐term indirect effects of mechanical cockle‐dredging on intertidal bivalve stocks in the Wadden Sea. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38 (5), 976-990.

Pieters, H., Klutymans, J.H., Zandee, D.I. & Cadee, G.C., 1980. Tissue composition and reproduction of Mytilus edulis dependent upon food availability. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 14, 349-361.

Pihl, L., 1985. Food selection and consumption of mobile epibenthic fauna in shallow marine areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 22, 169-179.

Pihl, L., 1994. Changes in the Diet of Demersal Fish due to Eutrophication-Induced Hypoxia in the Kattegat, Sweden. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 51(2), 321-336.

Pihl, L., Baden, S., Kautsky, N., Rönnbäck, P., Söderqvist, T., Troell, M. & Wennhage, H., 2006. Shift in fish assemblage structure due to loss of seagrass Zostera marina habitats in Sweden Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 67, 123-132

Pihl, L., Isaksson, I., Wennhage, H. & Moksnes, P.-O., 1995. Recent increase of filamentous algae in shallow Swedish bays: effects on the community structure of epibenthic fauna and fish. Netherland Journal of Aquatic Ecology, 29 (3-4), 349-358.

Pihl, L., Wennhage, H. & Nilsson, S., 1994. Fish assemblage structure in relation to macrophytes and filamentous epiphytes in shallow non-tidal rocky-and soft-bottom habitats. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 39 (3), 271-288.

Pike, A.W. & Burt, M.D.B., 1981. Paravortex karlingi sp. nov. from Cerastoderma edule. Hydrobiologia, 84, 23-30.

Pikula, Konstantin, Chaika, Vladimir, Zakharenko, Alexander, Savelyeva, Anastasia, Kirsanova, Irina, Anisimova, Anna & Golokhvast, Kirill, 2020. Toxicity of Carbon, Silicon, and Metal-Based Nanoparticles to the Hemocytes of Three Marine Bivalves. Animals, 10 (5). DOI

Pilkington, M.C., 1971. The veliger stage of Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant). Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 39, 281-287.

Pineda, M.-C., Strehlow, B., Kamp, J., Duckworth, A., Jones, R. & Webster, N.S., 2017a. Effects of combined dredging-related stressors on sponges: a laboratory approach using realistic scenarios. Scientific Reports, 7 (1), 5155.

Pineda, M.-C., Strehlow, B., Sternel, M., Duckworth, A., Haan, J.d., Jones, R. & Webster, N.S., 2017b. Effects of sediment smothering on the sponge holobiont with implications for dredging management. Scientific Reports, 7 (1), 5156.

Pinedo, S., Sarda, R., Rey, C. & Bhaud, M., 2000. Effect of sediment particle size on recruitment of Owenia fusiformis in the Bay of Blanes (NW Mediterranean Sea): an experimental approach to explain field distribution. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 203, 205-213.

Pingree, R.D. & Maddock, L., 1977. Tidal residuals in the English Channel Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 339-354.

Pinhorn, A.T., 1984. Temporal and Spatial Variation in Fecundity of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) in Newfoundland Waters. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Science, 5, 161-170.

Pinn, E.H. & Ansell, A.D., 1993. The effect of particle size on the burying ability of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 73, 365-377.

Pinn, E.H. & Atkinson, R.J.A., 2010. Burrow development, nutrient fluxes, carnivory and caching behaviour by Calocaris macandreae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Thalassinidea). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 90 (2), 247-253. DOI

Pinn, E.H. & Rodgers, M., 2005. The influence of visitors on intertidal biodiversity. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 85 (02), 263-268.

Pinn, E.H., Atkinson, R.J.A. & Rogerson, A., 1998. The diet of two mud-shrimps, Calocaris macandreae and Upogebia stellata (Crustacea: Decapoda: Thalassinidea). Ophelia, 48 (3), 211-223. DOI

Pinn, E.H., James, R., Atkinson, A. & Rogerson, A., 1998b. Particle size selectivity and resource partitioning in five species of Thalassinidea (Crustacea: Decapoda). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 169, 243-250. DOI

Pinn, E.H., Mitchell, K. & Corkill, J., 2005. The assemblages of groynes in relation to substratum age, aspect and microhabitat. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 62 (1), 271-282.

Pinn, E.H., Richardson, C.A., Thompson, R.C. & Hawkins, S.J., 2005. Burrow morphology, biometry, age and growth of piddocks (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pholadidae) on the south coast of England. Marine Biology, 147(4), 943-953.

Pinn, E.H., Thompson, R. & Hawkins, S., 2008. Piddocks (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pholadidae) increase topographical complexity and species diversity in the intertidal. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 355, 173-182.

Pinnegar, J.K., StelzenmÜller, V., Van Der KooiJ, J., Engelhard, G.H., Garrick-Maidment, N. and Righton, D.A., 2008. Occurrence of the short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus in the central North Sea. Cybium32 (4), 343-346.

Pipe, A., 1981. North Sea fouling organisms and their potential effects on the corrosion of North Sea structures. London:

Pires, A., Almeida, A., Calisto, V., Schneider, R.J., Esteves, V. I., Wrona, F. J., Soares, A., Figueira, E. & Freitas, R., 2016. Hediste diversicolor as bioindicator of pharmaceutical pollution: Results from single and combined exposure to carbamazepine and caffeine. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C-Toxicology & Pharmacology, 188, 30-38. DOI

Pires, A., Figueira, E., Silva, M. S. S., Sa, C. & Marques, Paap, 2022. Effects of graphene oxide nanosheets in the polychaete Hediste diversicolor: Behavioural, physiological and biochemical responses. Environmental Pollution, 299. DOI

Pires, D., Castro, C. & Silva, J., 2009. Reproductive biology of the deep-sea pennatulacean Anthoptilum murrayi (Cnidaria, Octocorallia). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 397, 103-112. DOI

Pires, D.O., Silva, J.C. & Bastos, N.D., 2014. Reproduction of deep-sea reef-building corals from the southwestern Atlantic. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 99, 51-63. DOI

Pisa, L., Goulson, D., Yang, E. C., Gibbons, D., Sanchez-Bayo, F., Mitchell, E., Aebi, A., van der Sluijs, J., MacQuarrie, C. J. K., Giorio, C., Long, E. Y., McField, M., van Lexmond, M. B. & Bonmatin, J. M., 2021. An update of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic insecticides. Part 2: impacts on organisms and ecosystems. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28 (10), 11749-11797. DOI

Piscitelli, M., Corriero, G., Gaino, E. & Uriz, M.J., 2011. Reproductive cycles of the sympatric excavating sponges Cliona celata and Cliona viridis in the Mediterranean Sea. Invertebrate Biology, 130 (1), 1-10.

Pita, L., Rix, L., Slaby, B.M., Franke, A. & Hentschel, U., 2018. The sponge holobiont in a changing ocean: from microbes to ecosystems. Microbiome, 6 (1), 46. DOI

Pizzolla P.F., 2007. Codium tomentosum Velvet horn. In Tyler-Walters H. and Hiscock K. (eds) Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Reviews, [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 10.02.16]. Available from:

Planas, M. & Mora, J., 1989. Epigenetical changes in Capitella (Polychaeta, Capitellidae) in the Ensenada de Lourizan (NW Spain). Vie et Milieu, 39, 159-163.

Planas, M., Quintas, P. & Chamorro, A., 2013. Maturation of Hippocampus guttulatus and Hippocampus hippocampus females by manipulation of temperature and photoperiod regimes. Aquaculture, 388-391, 147-152. DOI

Planque, B. & Frédou, T., 1999. Temperature and the recruitment of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 56, 2069-2077.

Plante, S., Chabot, D., Dutil, J.D., 1998. Hypoxia tolerance in Atlantic cod. Journal of Fish Biology, 53, 1342–1356.

Plante-Cuny, M.R., Salen-Picard, C., Grenz, C., Plante, R., Alliot, E. & Barranguet, C., 1993. Experimental field study of the effects of crude oil, drill cuttings and natural biodeposits on microphyto- and macrozoobenthic communities in a Mediterranean area. Marine Biology, 117, 355-366.

Plaza, J. & Sanderson, W.G., 1997. Rare sea bed species. In Coasts and seas of the United Kingdom. Region 15 & 16: Northwest Scotland: the Western Isles and west Highland, ed. J.H. Barne, C.F. Robson, S.S. Kasnowska, J.P. Doody, N.C. Davidson & A.L. Buck, pp. 116-121.

Pleijel, F. & Dales, R.P., 1991. Polychaetes: British Phyllodocoideans, Typhloscolecoideans and Tomopteroideans. Oegstgeest, The Netherlands: U.B.S./Dr. W. Backhuys. [Synopsis of the British Fauna No. 45.]

Plinski, M. & Florczyk, I., 1984. Changes in the phytobenthos resulting from the eutrophication of Puck Bay. Limnologica, 15, 325-327.

Plus, M., Deslous-Paoli, J-M., Auby, I. & Dagault, F., 2001. Factors influencing primary production of seagrass beds (Zostera noltii Hornem.) in the Thau lagoon (French Mediterranean coast). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 259, 63-84.

Pocklington, J.B., Jenkins, S.R., Bellgrove, A., Keough, M.J., O#&39;Hara, T.D., Masterson-Algar, P.E. & Hawkins, S.J., 2018. Disturbance alters ecosystem engineering by a canopy-forming alga. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 98 (4), 687-698. DOI

Pocklington, P. & Wells, P.G., 1992. Key taxa for marine environmental quality monitoring. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 24, 593-598.

Poddubnaya, T.L., 1980. Life cycles of mass species of Tubificidae (Oligochaeta). In Proceedings of the first international symposium on aquatic oligochaete biology, Sydney, British Colombia, Canada, May 1-4, 1979. Aquatic oligochaete biology (ed. R.O. Brinkhurst & D.G. Cook), pp. 175-184. New York: Plenum Press.

Poddubnaya, T.L., 1976. Peculiarities of biology and productivity of Tubifex tubifex (Mull.) in a polluted section of the tributary of the Rybinsk reservoir. In Biological and productive processes of the Volga basin, (ed. N. Leningrad), p.119. (In Russian).

Poggiale, J.C. & Dauvin, J.C., 2001. Long term dynamics of three benthic Ampelisca (Crustacea - Amphipoda) populations from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) related to their disappearance after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 214, 201-209.

Poirier, R., Chichery, R. & Dickel, L., 2004. Effects of rearing conditions on sand digging efficiency in juvenile cuttlefish. Behavioural Processes, 67, 273-279.

Poisson, F. & Seret, B., 2009. Pelagic sharks in the Atlantic and Mediterranean French fisheries: Analysis of catch statistics. Collective volume of scientific papers. International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas/Recueil de documents scientifiques. Commission internationale pour la conservation des thonides de l'Atlantique/Coleccion de documentos cientificos. Comision Internacional para la Conservacion del Atun Atlantico, 64 (5), 1547-1567.

Polak-Juszczak, L., 2009. Temporal trends in the bioaccumulation of trace metals in herring, sprat, and cod from the southern Baltic Sea in the 1994–2003 period. Chemosphere, 76, 1334-1339.

Polderman, P.J.G., 1979. The saltmarsh algae of the Wadden area. In Flora and vegetation of the Wadden Sea (ed. W.J. Wolff), pp. 124-60. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema.

Pollock, D.E., 1995. Evolution of life history patterns in three genera of spiny lobsters. Bulletin of Marine Science, 57, 516-526.

Poloczanska, E.S., Hughes, D.J. & Burrows, M.T., 2004. Underwater television observations of Serpula vermicularis (L.) reefs and associated mobile fauna in Loch Creran, Scotland. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 61, 425-435. DOI

Polte, P. & Asmus, H., 2006. Intertidal seagrass beds (Zostera noltii) as spawning grounds for transient fishes in the Wadden Sea Marine Ecology Progress Series, 312, 235-243.

Polyanski, Yu.I., 1955. Parasites of the fish of the Barent Sea. The Parasitology of Fish of Northern Marine Waters of the U.S.S.R. Monchadskii, A.S. (ed.). Transactions of the Zoological Institiute of the Academy of Science of the U.S.S.R., Vol. 19. Collection of works on Parasitology. Murmansk Biological Station and Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences, U.S.S.R. Translated from Russian. Isreal Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1966. 

Pommer, C.D., Olesen, M. & Hansen, J.L.S., 2016. Impact and distribution of bottom trawl fishing on mud-bottom communities in the Kattegat. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 548, 47-60

Ponat, A., 1975. Investigations on the influence of crude oil on the survival and oxygen consumption of Idotea baltica and Gammarus salinus. Kieler Meeresforschungen, 31, 26-31.

Ponder, W.F. & Lindberg, D.R., 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 119, 83-265.

Ponder, W.F., 1990. A gravel beach shelled micro-gastropod assemblage from Centa, Strait of Gibraltar, with the description of a new truncatelloidean genus. Bulletin du Museum National d'histoire Naturelle, 4th series, 12, 291-311.

Ponomarenko, I.Y., 1984. Survival of bottom-dwelling young cod in the Barents Sea and factors determining it. Proceedings of the Soviet-Norwegian symposium on reproduction and recruitment and arctic cod, Leningrad, 25-30 September 1983, (eds. O.R. Godø and S. Tilseth), Institute of Marine Research, Bergen.

Pook, C., Lewis, C. & Galloway, T., 2009. The metabolic and fitness costs associated with metal resistance in Nereis diversicolor. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58 (7), 1063-1071. DOI

Poore, G., Ahyong, S., Taylor, J., 2011. The Biology of Squat Lobsters. Melbourne and CRC Press: Boca Raton: CSIRO Publishing

Popp Madsen, K., 1957. A Danish fishery for sandeel (Ammodytidae). Annales Biologique. Copenhagen, 12, 101.

Porcet-Henner, E. & Dugimont, T., 1992. Adaptability of the coccidian Coelotropha to parasitism. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 16, 263-274.

Porras, R., Batalier, J.V., Murgui, E. & Torregrosa, M.T., 1996. Trophic structure and community composition of polychaetes inhabiting some Sabellaria alveolata (L.) reefs along the Valencia Gulf coast, western Mediterranean. Marine Ecology, Pubblicazione della Statione Zoologica di Napoli, 17, 583-602.

Porter, J., 2012. Seasearch Guide to Bryozoans and Hydroids of Britain and Ireland.   Ross-on-Wye: Marine Conservation Society.

Porter, J.S., Ellis, J.R., Hayward, P.J., Rogers, S.I. & Callaway, R. 2002. Geographic variation in the abundance and morphology of the bryozoan Alcyonidium diaphanum (Ctenostomata: Alcyonidiidae) in UK coastal waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 82, 529-535.

Porter, J.S., Hayward, P.J. & Spencer-Jones, M.E. 2001. The identitiy of Alcyonidium diaphanum (Bryozoa: Ctenostomatida). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 81, 1001-1008.

Portig, A.A., Mathers, R.G., Montgomery, R.N. & Govier, R.N., 1994. The distribution and utilisation of Zostera species in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland Aquatic Botany, 47, 317-328

Portillo, E., de la Rosa, M. R., Louzara, G., Ruiz, J. M., Marin-Guirao, L., Quesada, J., Gonzalez, J. C., Roque, F., Gonzalez, N. & Mendoza, H., 2014. Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 80 (1-2), 222-233. DOI

Portmann, J. E., 1968. Progress report on a programme of insecticide analysis and toxicity-testing in relation to the marine environment. Helgoländer wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 17, 247-256. DOI

Portmann, J. E. & Connor, P. M., 1968. The toxicity of several oil-spill removers to some species of fish and shellfish. Marine Biology, 1 (4), 322-329. DOI

Portmann, J.E., 1972. Results of acute toxicity tests with marine organisms, using a standard method. In Ruivo, M. (eds.). Marine Pollution and Sea Life. Rome, Italy: FAO, pp. 212-217.

Portmann, J.E. & Wilson, K.W., 1971. The toxicity of 140 substances to the brown shrimp and other marine animals. Shellfish Information Leaflet No.22 (2nd Ed.),, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Burnham-on-Crouch, Essex, and Conway, North Wales, 12 pp.

Portner, H.O., Surholt, B. & Grieshaber, M., 1979. Recovery from anaerobiosis of the lugworm Arenicola marina (L) - changes of metabolite concentrations in the body-wall musculature. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 133 (3), 227-231.

Porzio, L., Buia, M.C. & Hall-Spencer, J.M., 2011. Effects of ocean acidification on macroalgal communities. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 400 (1), 278-287. DOI

Posey, M.H. & Hines, A.H., 1991. Complex predator-prey interactions within an estuarine benthic community. Ecology, 72, 2155-2169.

Posey, M.H., 1986. Changes in a benthic community associated with dense beds of a burrowing deposit feeder, Callianassa californiensis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 31, 15-22.

Poss, S.G. & Boschung, H.T., 1996. Lancelets (Cephalochordata: Branchiostomatidae): How many species are valid? Israel Journal of Zoology, 42 (1), S13-S66.

Potin, P., Floc'h, J.Y., Augris, C., & Cabioch, J., 1990. Annual growth rate of the calcareous red alga Lithothamnion corallioides (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in the bay of Brest, France. Hydrobiologia, 204/205, 263-277

Potouroglou, M., Kenyon, E.J., Gall, A., Cook, K.J. & Bull, J.C., 2014. The roles of flowering, overwinter survival and sea surface temperature in the long-term population dynamics of Zostera marina around the Isles of Scilly, UK. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 83 (2), 500-507. DOI

Potter, D.W.B. & Learner, M.A., 1974. A study of the benthic macro-invertebrates of a shallow eutrophic reservoir in South Wales with emphasis on the Chironomidae (Diptera) their life histories and production.

Potter, I.C. & Huggins, R.J., 1973. Observations on the morphology, behaviour and salinity tolerance of downstream migrating river lampreys (Lampetra fluviatilis). Journal of Zoology, 169, 365-379

Potts, G.W. & Swaby, S.E., 1992. The current status of the giant goby, Gobius cobitis Pallas in the British Isles. , Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Unpublished report no. 99 F2A 059.

Potts, G.W. & Swaby, S.E., 1991. Evaluation of the conservation requirements of rarer British marine fishes. Final report to the Nature Conservancy Council. , Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.

Poulin, R. & Mouritsen, K.N., 2006. Climate change, parasitism and the structure of intertidal ecosystems. Journal of Helminthology, 80 (2), 183-192.

Poulsen, E.M., 1946. Investigations on the Danish fishery for and the biology of the Norway lobster and the deep-sea prawn. Report of the Danish Biological Station, 48, 27-49.

Povey, A. & Keough, M.J., 1991. Effects of trampling on plant and animal populations on rocky shores. Oikos61: 355-368.

Powell, A. & Eriksson, S.P., 2013. Reproduction: Life Cycle, Larvae and Larviculture. In Johnson, M.L. and Johnson, M.P. (eds.). The Ecology and Biology of Nephrops norvegicus. Advances in Marine Biology, vol. 64: Academic Press pp. 201-245.

Powell, C.E., 1979. Isopods other than cyathura (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Isopoda). In Pollution ecology of estuarine invertebrates (ed. C.W. Hart & S.L.H. Fuller), 325-338. New York: Academic Press.

Powell, E.N. & Mann, R., 2005. Evidence of recent recruitment in the ocean quahog Arctica islandica in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24 (2), 517-530.

Powell, H., 1963. Speciation in the genus Fucus L., and related genera. In Harding, J. and Tebble, N. (eds.). Speciation in the Sea, London: Systematics Association, pp. 63–77.

Powell, H.T., 1957. Studies in the genus FucusL. , I. Fucus distichus L. emend. Powell Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 36, 407-431.

Powell, H.T., 1957b. Studies on the genus Fucus L. II. Distribution and ecology of Fucus distichus L. emend Powell in Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 36, 663-693.

Powell, N., 1971. The marine bryozoa near the Panama Canal. Bulletin of Marine Science, 21 (3), 766-778.

Powell, N., 1971. The marine bryozoa near the Panama Canal. Bulletin of Marine Science, 21 (3), 766-778.

Powell-Jennings, C. & Callaway, R., 2018. The invasive, non-native slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata is poorly adapted to sediment burial. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 130, 95-104. DOI

Powilleit, M. & Graf, G., 1996. The contribution of the mud shrimp Callianassa subterranea (Decapoda: Thallassinidea) to sediment metabolism during oxygen deficiency in southern North Sea sediments. Journal of Sea Research, 36, 193-202.

Powilleit, M. & Kube, J. 1999. Effects of severe oxygen depletion on macrobenthos of the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea): a case study in a shallow, sublittoral habitat characterised by low species richness. Journal of Sea Research, 42, 221-234.

Powilleit, M., Graf, G., Kleine, J., Riethmuller, R., Stockmann, K., Wetzel, M.A. & Koop, J.H.E., 2009. Experiments on the survival of six brackish macro-invertebrates from the Baltic Sea after dredged spoil coverage and its implications for the field. Journal of Marine Systems, 75 (3-4), 441-451.

Powilleit, M., Kleine, J. & Leuchs, H., 2006. Impacts of experimental dredged material disposal on a shallow, sublittoral macrofauna community in Mecklenburg Bay (western Baltic Sea). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52 (4), 386-396.

Prado, P., Roque, A., Pérez, J., Ibáñez, C., Alcaraz, C., Casals, F. & Caiola, N., 2016. Warming and acidification-mediated resilience to bacterial infection determine mortality of early Ostrea edulis life stages. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 545, 189-202. DOI

Pramitha, V.S. &Lipton, A.P., 2014. Antimicrobial effect of Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 solvent extracts against multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacteria and fish pathogens. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Science, 43,

Prange, J. A. & Dennison, W. C., 2000. Physiological Responses of Five Seagrass Species to Trace Metals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 41 (7), 327-336. DOI

Prange, R.K., 1978. An autecological study of Blidingia minima var. subsalsa (Chlorophyceae) in the Squamish estuary (British Columbia). Canadian Journal of Botany, 56 (2), 170-179.

Pranovi, F., Raicevich, S. & Franceschini, G., 2001. Discard analysis and damage to non-target species in the "rapido" trawl fishery. Marine Biology, 139(5), 1432-1793.

Prathep, A. 2001. Population ecology of a turf-forming red alga, Osmundea pinnatifida from the Isle of Man, British Isles. Ph.D. thesis. University of Liverpool.

Prathep, A., Marrs, R. & Norton, T., 2003. Spatial and temporal variations in sediment accumulation in an algal turf and their impact on associated fauna. Marine Biology, 142 (2), 381-390.

Pratt, M. & Johnson, A. 2002. Strength, drag and dislodgement of two competing intertidal algae from two wave exposures and four seasons. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 272, 71-101.

Preece, G.S., 1971. The swimming rhythm of Bathyporeia pilosa (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 51, 777-791.

Preece, G.S., 1970. Salinity and survival in Bathyporeia pilosa Lindström and B. pelagica (Bate). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 5, 234-245.

Prena, J., Schwinghamer, P., Rowell, T. W., Gordon, D. C., Gilkinson, K. D., Vass, W. P. & McKeown, D. L., 1999. Experimental otter trawling on a sandy bottom ecosystem of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland: analysis of trawl bycatch and effects on epifauna. Marine Ecology Progress Series (Halstenbek), 181, 107-124.

Prendergast, G.S., Zurn, C.M., Bers, A.V., Head, R.M., Hansson, L.J. & Thomason, J.C., 2009. The relative magnitude of the effects of biological and physical settlement cues for cypris larvae of the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides L. Biofouling, 25 (1), 35-44.

Preston J. & Burton, M., 2015. Marine microbial assemblages associated with diseased Porifera in Skomer Marine Nature Reserve (SMNR), Wales. Aquatic Biodiversity and Ecosystems, 30th August – 4th September,  Liverpool.,  pp. p110.

Preston, A., 1973. Heavy metals in British Waters. Nature, 242, 95-97.

Preston, C.D., 1995. Pondweeds of Great Britain and Ireland. London: Botanical Society of the British Isles. [B.S.B.I. Handbook no. 8.]

Preston, J., Fabra, M., Helmer, L., Johnson, E., Harris-Scott, E. & Hendy, I.W., 2020. Interactions of larval dynamics and substrate preference have ecological significance for benthic biodiversity and Ostrea edulis Linnaeus, 1758 in the presence of Crepidula fornicata. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 30 (11), 2133-2149. DOI

Prestrud, P., Strøm, H. & Goldman, H.V., 2004. A catalogue of the terrestrial and marine animals of Svalbard. Norsk Polarinstitutt.

Price, H., 1982. An analysis of factors determining seasonal variation in the byssal attachment strength of Mytilus edulis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 62 (01), 147-155

Price, J.H., Irvine, D.E. & Farnham, W.F., 1980. The shore environment. Volume 2: Ecosystems. London Academic Press.

Price, J.H., Tittley, I. & Richardson, W.D., 1979. The distribution of Padina pavonica (L.) Lamour. (Phaeophyta: Dictyotales) on British and adjacent European shores. Brit Mus (Natural History) Bot Ser, 7, 1-67.

Price, R. & Warwick, R.M., 1980. Temporal variations in annual production and biomass in estuarine populations of two polychaetes, Nephtys hombergi and Ampharete acutifrons. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 60, 481-487.

Price, R.K.J. & Uglow, R.F., 1979. Some effects of certain metals on development and mortality within the moult cycle of Crangon crangon (L.). Marine Environmental Research, 2, 287-299.

Price, R.K.J. & Uglow, R.F., 1980. Cardiac and ventilatory responses of Crangon crangon to cadmium, copper and zinc. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 33, 59-67.

Price, R.K.J., 1979. Studies on the toxicity of cadmium, copper and zinc to the brown shrimp, Crangon crangon (L.). PhD Thesis, University of Hull, 305p.,

Price, R.M., Gosliner, T.M. & Valdes, A., 2011. Systematics and phylogeny of Philine (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with emphasis on the Philine aperta species complex. Veliger, 51 (2), 1-58.

Pridmore, R.D., Thrush, S.F., Cummings, V.J. & Hewitt, J.E., 1992. Effect of the organochlorine pesticide technical chlordane on intertidal macrofauna. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 24 (2), 98-102. DOI

Pridmore, R.D., Thrush, S.F., Wilcock, R.J., Smith, T.J., Hewitt, J. & Cummings, V.J., 1991. Effects of the organochlorine pesticide technical chlordane on the population structure of suspension and deposit feeding bivalves. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 76, 261-271.

Priede, I.G. & Miller, P.I., 2009. A basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) tracked by satellite together with simultaneous remote sensing II: new analysis reveals orientation to a thermal front. Fisheries Research, 95(2/3), 370-372.

Prince, J.S. & Kingsbury, J.M., 1973. The ecology of Chondrus crispus at Plymouth, Massachusetts. 3. Effect of elevated temperature on growth and survival. Biology Bulletin, 145, 580-588.

Pringle, J., & Semple, R. 1980. The benthic algal biomass, commercial harvesting, and Chondrus growth and colonization off southwestern Nova Scotia. In Proceedings of the workshop on the relationship between sea urchin grazing and commercial plant / animal harvesting. Edited by J. Pringle, G. Sharp, and J. Caddy. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 954. pp. 144-169.

Pringle, J.D. & Mathieson, A.C., 1986. Chondrus crispus Stackhouse. Case Studies of Seven Commercial Seaweed Resources, 281, 49-122, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper.

Printrakoon, C. & Kamlung-ek, A., 2013. Socioeconomic study and economic value of living fossil, Lingula sp. in mangrove ecosystem in Trat Province, Thailand. Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment, 11 (3), 187-199.

Printz, H.S., 1959. Investigations of the failure of recuperation and re-populating in cropped Ascophyllum areas. Avhandlinger utgitt av Det Norske Videnskap-Akademi i Oslo No. 3.

Probert, P. K., McKnight, D. G. & Grove, S. L., 1997. Benthic invertebrate bycatch from a deep-water trawl fishery, Chatham Rise, New Zealand. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 7 (1), 27-40. DOI 3.0.CO;2-9"><27>3.0.CO;2-9

Probert, P.K., 1981. Changes in the benthic community of china clay waste deposits is Mevagissey Bay following a reduction of discharges. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 61, 789-804. Doi

Procaccini, G., Affinito, O., Toscano, F. & Sordino, P., 2011. A new animal model for merging ecology and evolution. Evolutionary Biology–Concepts, Biodiversity, Macroevolution and Genome Evolution: Springer, pp. 91-106.

Proctor, C., 1999. Torbay Zostera mapping project. Report to English Nature, World Wide Fund for Nature UK, and Torbay Council

Project Splatter, 2017. UK Roadkill Records. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-10-01.

Prouse, N.J. & Gordon, D.C., 1976. Interactions between the deposit feeding polychaete Arenicola marina and oiled sediment. In Proceedings of a Symposium of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, Arlington, Virginia, 1976. Sources, effects and sinks of hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment, pp. 408-422. USA: American Institute of Biological Sciences.

Prouty, N., Roark, E., Buster, N. & Ross, S., 2011. Growth rate and age distribution of deep-sea black corals in the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 423, 101-115. DOI

Prouty, N., Roark, E., Mohon, L.M. & Chang, C-C., 2018. Uptake and distribution of organo-iodine in deep-sea corals. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 187. DOI

Prouty, N.G., Roark, E.B., Andrews, A., Robinson, L., Hill, T., Sherwood, O., Williams, B., Guilderson, T.P. & Fallon, S., 2015. Age, growth rates, and paleoclimate studies of deep sea corals. NOAA, 22 pp.

Provan, J., Murphy, S. & Maggs, C.A., 2005. Tracking the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. Molecular Ecology, 14, 189-194.

Puce, S., Bavestrello, G., Di Camillo, C.G. & Boero, F., 2009. Long-term changes in hydroid (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) assemblages: effect of Mediterranean warming? 30 (3), 313-326. DOI

Pugh, P.J.A. & King, P.E., 1988. Acari of the British Isles. Journal of Natural History, 22, 107-122.

Pugh, P.J.A. & King, P.E., 1985a. Feeding in intertidal Acari. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 94, 269-280.

Pugh, P.J.A. & King, P.E., 1985b. The vertical distribution of the British intertidal Acari - the non halacarid fauna (Arachnida: Acari). Journal of Zoology, Series A, London, 207, 21-33.

Pugh, P.J.A., Llewllyn, P.J., Robinson, K. & Shackley, S.E., 1997. The association of phoretic mites (Acarina: Chelicerata) with sand-hoppers (Amphipoda: Crustacea) on the South Wales coast. Journal of Zoology, 243, 305-318.

Pukall, R., Kramer, I., Rohde, M. & Stackebrandt, E., 2001. Microbial diversity of cultivatable bacteria associated with the North Sea bryozoan Flustra foliacea. Systematic and applied microbiology, 24 (4), 623-633.

Puls, W., Van Bernem, K.H., Eppel, D., Kapitza, H., Pleskachevsky, A., Riethmueller, R. & Vaessen, B., 2012. Prediction of benthic community structure from environmental variables in a soft-sediment tidal basin (North Sea). Helgoland Marine Research, 66 (3), 345-361.

Purcell, J.E., 1977. Aggressive function and induced development of catch-tentacles in the sea anemone Metridium senile (Coelenterata: Actiniaria). Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole), 153, 355-368.

Purchon, R.D., 1937. Studies on the biology of the Bristol Channel. Proceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' Society, 8, 311-329.

Purchon, R.D., 1977. The biology of the mollusca, 2nd ed. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Purchon, R.D., 1955. The functional morphology of the rock-boring Lamellibranch Petricola pholadiformis Lamarck. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 34, 257-278.

Purschke, G., Arendt, D., Hausen, H. & Müller, M.C., 2006. Photoreceptor cells and eyes in Annelida. Arthropod Structure & Development,  (4), 211-230.

Purser, A., Larsson, A.I., Thomsen, L. & van Oevelen, D., 2010. The influence of flow velocity and food concentration on Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) zooplankton capture rates. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 395 (1), 55-62.

Pusceddu, A., Bianchelli, S., Martín, J., Puig, P., Palanques, A., Masqué, P. & Danovaro, R., 2014. Chronic and intensive bottom trawling impairs deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111 (24), 8861-8866. DOI

Pybus, C., 1977. The ecology of Chondrus crispus and Gigartina stellata (Rhodophyta) in Galway Bay. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 609-628.

Pyefinch, K. A., 1943. The intertidal ecology of Bardsey Island, North Wales, with special reference to the recolonization of rock surfaces, and the rock pool environment. Journal of Animal Ecology, 12, 82-108.

Pyefinch, K.A. & Mott, J.C., 1948. The sensitivity of barnacles and their larvae to copper and mercury. Journal of Experimental Biology, 25, 276-298.