Bibliography (A-Z)

Fabbri, R., Montagna, M., Balbi, T., Raffo, E., Palumbo, F. & Canesi, L., 2014. Adaptation of the bivalve embryotoxicity assay for the high throughput screening of emerging contaminants in Mytilus galloprovincialis. Marine Environmental Research, 99, 1-8. DOI

Fabricius, K. & De'ath G., 2001. Environmental factors associated with the spatial distribution of crustose coralline algae on the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs, 19:303-309.

Fabry, V.J., Seibel, B.A., Feely, R.A. & Orr, J.C., 2008. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65 (3), 414-432. DOI

Faes, V.A. & Viejo, R.M., 2003. Structure and dynamics of a population of Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) in Northern Spain. Journal of Phycology, 39 (6), 1038-1049.

Faganeli, J., Avčin, A., Fanuko, N., Malej, A., Turk, V., Tušnik, P., Vrišer, B. & Vukovič, A., 1985. Bottom layer anoxia in the central part of the Gulf of Trieste in the late summer of 1983. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 16(2), 75-78.

Faganeli, J., Vriser, B., Leskovsek, H., Cermelj, B. & Planinc, R., 1997. The impact of highway pollution on the coastal sea. In Phys Planning Slovenia, Minist Sci and Technol, Slovenia U. N. Environm Programme Mediterranean Act Plan Wessex Inst Technol U. K. Univ Ljubljana Slovania. 4th International Conference on Water Pollution, Lake Bled, Slovenia, Jun, pp. 161-173.

Fage, L., 1933. Pêches plantoniques à la lumiére effectuées à Banyuls-sur-Mer et à Concarneau. III. Crustacés. Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale., 76, 105-248.

Fahay, M.P., Berrien, P.L., Johnson, D.L. & Morse, W.W., 1999. Essential Fish Habitat Document: Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Life history and habitat characteristics. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-NE-124, pp. 41., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: National Marine Fisheries Service.

Fahy, E., 1999. A new fishery for razor clams (Ensis siliqua) on the east coast of Ireland. Journal of Shellfish Research, 18, 715.

Fahy, E., 2003. Surf clams, a very limited resource [On-line] surf+clams+limited+resource++aug+03.pdf, 2004-03-16

Fahy, E., 1988. Recent developments in the Irish fisheries for spurdog, Squalus acanthias (L.). ICES Council Meeting Papers, C.M.1988/H:6

Fahy, E., Carroll, J. & O'Toole, M., 2003. A preliminary account of fisheries for the surf clam Spisula solida (L) (Mactracea) in Ireland [On-line], 2004-03-16

Fahy, E., Carroll, J. & Stokes, D., 2002. The inshore pot fishery for brown crab (Cancer pagurus), landing into south east Ireland: estimate of yield and assessment of status. Irish Fisheries Investigations, 11, 26 p.

Fahy, E., Masterson, E., Swords, D. & Forrest, N., 2000. A second assessment of the whelk fishery Buccinum undatum in the southwest Irish Sea with particular reference to its history of management by size limits. Irish Fisheries Investigations, 6, 67pp.

Fairfax, D.,1998. The basking shark in Scotland. Natural history, fishery and conservation. East Linton: Tuckwell Press.

Fairweather, P.G., 1987. Experiments on the interaction between predation and the availability of different prey on rocky shores. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 154, 29-75.

Falck, C. L. & Bowman, T. E., 1994. Commensal life, sexual dimorphism, and handedness in the Canuellid Harpacticoid Parasunaristes chelicerata (Por And Marcus, 1972). Hydrobiologia, 293, 455-459.

Fallesen, G. & Jørgensen, H.M., 1991. Distribution of Nephtys hombergii and Nephtys ciliata (Polychaeta: Nephtyidae) in Århus Bay, Denmark, with emphasis on the severe oxygen deficiency. Ophelia, Supplement 5, 443-450.

Fallon, S. J., Thresher, R. E. & Adkins, J., 2014. Age and growth of the cold-water scleractinian Solenosmilia variabilis and its reef on SW Pacific seamounts. Coral Reefs, 33 (1), 31-38. DOI

Fallon, S.J., James, K., Norman, R., Kelly, M. & Ellwood, M.J., 2010. A simple radiocarbon dating method for determining the age and growth rate of deep-sea sponges. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 268 (7), 1241-1243. DOI

Famme, P., Knudsen, J., & Hansen, E.S., 1981. The effect of oxygen on the aerobic - anaerobic metabolism of the marine bivalve Mytilus edulis. Marine Biology Letters, 2, 345-351.

Fanelli, E., Cartes, J. E., Papiol, V. & Lopez-Perez, C., 2013. Environmental drivers of megafaunal assemblage composition and biomass distribution over mainland and insular slopes of the Balearic Basin (Western Mediterranean). Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers, 78, 79-94. DOI

Fanelli, E., Papiol, V., Cartes, J. E., Rumolo, P., Brunet, C. & Sprovieri, M., 2011. Food web structure of the epibenthic and infaunal invertebrates on the Catalan slope (NW Mediterranean): Evidence from delta C-13 and delta N-15 analysis. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers, 58 (1), 98-109. DOI

Fanelli, G., Piraino, S., Belmonte, G., Geraci, S. & Boero, F., 1994. Human predation along Apulian rocky coasts (SE Italy): desertification caused by Lithophaga lithophaga (Mollusca) fisheries. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Oldendorf, 110 (1), 1-8.

Fang, J.K.H., Rooks, C.A., Krogness, C.M., Kutti, T., Hoffmann, F. & Bannister, R.J., 2018. Impact of particulate sediment, bentonite and barite (oil-drilling waste) on net fluxes of oxygen and nitrogen in Arctic-boreal sponges. Environmental Pollution, 238, 948-958. DOI

Fanini, L., Cantarino, C.M. & Scapini, F., 2005. Relationships between the dynamics of two Talitrus saltator populations and the impacts of activities linked to tourism. Oceanologia, 47 (1).

Fanini, L., Marchetti, G.M., Baczewska, A., Sztybor, K. & Scapini, F., 2012. Behavioural adaptation to different salinities in the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda): Mediterranean vs Baltic populations. Marine and Freshwater Research, 63 (3), 275-281.

Fanini, L., Marchetti, G.M., Scapini, F. & Defeo, O., 2009. Effects of beach nourishment and groynes building on population and community descriptors of mobile arthropodofauna. Ecological Indicators, 9 (1), 167-178.

Fanini, L., Zampicinini, G. & Pafilis, E., 2014. Beach parties: a case study on recreational human use of the beach and its effects on mobile arthropod fauna. Ethology Ecology & Evolution, 26 (1), 69-79.

Fankboner, P.V., 1971. The ciliary currents associated with feeding, digestion, and sediment removal in Adula (Botula) falcata Gould 1851. Biological Bulletin, 140, 28-45.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 2004. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme: Ostrea edulis (Linnaeus, 1758). In FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. [Cited 16 March 2009]. Avalable from:

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 2019. Deep-ocean climate change impacts on habitat, fish and fisheries. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, FAO (Fisheries and Aquaculture Organisation), Rome, No. 638., 186 pp

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 2002. Fisheries Statistics. Capture Production. Yearbook. Volume 94/1.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 2007. Aquaculture production: values 1984-2005. FISHSTAT Plus - Universal software for fishery statistical time series [online or CD-ROM]. Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Farell, P. & Fletcher, R., 2000. The biology and distribution of the kelp, Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, in the Solent. In Solent Science - A Review (ed. M. Collins and K. Ansell), pp. 311-314. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V.

Fariñas-Franco, J.M., Allcock, L., Smyth, D. & Roberts, D., 2013. Community convergence and recruitment of keystone species as performance indicators of artificial reefs. Journal of Sea Research, 78, 59-74.

Fariñas-Franco, J.M., Pearce, B., Porter, J., Harries, D., Mair, J.M. & Sanderson, W.G, 2014. Development and validation of indicators of Good Environmental Status for biogenic reefs formed by Modiolus modiolus, Mytilus edulis and Sabellaria spinulosa under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Joint Nature Conservation Committee,

Fariñas-Franco, J.M., Sanderson, W.G., and Roberts, D., 2016. Phenotypic differences may limit the potential for habitat restoration involving species translocation: a case study of shape ecophenotypes in different populations of Modiolus modiolus (Mollusca: Bivalvia).Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 26: 76–94.

Faria, C. & Almada, V., 1999. Variation and resilience of rocky intertidal fish in western Portugal. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 184, 197-203.

Faria, C., Almada, V. & Do Carmo Nunes, M., 1998. Patterns of agonistic behaviour, shelter occupation and habitat preference in juvenile Lipophrys pholis, Coryphoblennius galerita and Gobius cobitis. Journal of Fish Biology, 53, 6, 1263-1273.

Farina, O., Ramos, R., Bastidas, C. & Garcia, E., 2008. Biochemical Responses of Cnidarian Larvae to Mercury and Benzo(a)pyrene Exposure. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 81 (6), 553-557. DOI

Farke, H. & Berghuis, E.M., 1979. Spawning, larval development and migration behaviour of Arenicola marina in the laboratory. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 13, 512-528.

Farke, H. & Gunther, C.P., 1984. Effects of Oil and a Dispersant on Intertidal Macrofauna in Field Experiments with Bremerhaven caissons and in the Laboratory. In G. Persoone, E. Jaspers and Claus, C. (eds.). Ecotoxicolgical Testing for the Marine Environment. Bredene, Belgium: State University of Ghent, Institute for Marine Scientific Research, pp. 219-236.

Farke, H., 1979. Population dynamics, reproduction and early development of Tharyx marioni (Polychaeta, Cirratulidae) on tidal flats of the German Bight. Veroffentlichungen des Instituts fur Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven, 18, 69-99.

Farmer, A.S.D., 1974a. Field assessments of diurnal activity in Irish Sea populations of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.) (Decapoda: Nephropidae). Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 2, 37-47.

Farmer, A.S.D., 1974b. Burrowing behaviour of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (L.) (Decapoda: Nephropidae). Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 2, 49-58.

Farmer, A.S.D., 1974c. Reproduction in Nephrops norvegicus. Journal of Zoology, 174, 161-183.

Farmer, A.S.D., 1975. Synopsis of the biological data on the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758). FAO Fisheries Synopsis, 112, 1-97.

Farmer, A.S.D., 1974d. The functional morphology of the mouthparts and pereiopods of Nephrops norvegicus (L.) (Decapoda: Nephropidae). Journal of Natural History, 8, 121-142.

Farnham, W.F., Fletcher, R.L., & Irvine, L.M., 1973. Attached Sargassum found in Britain. Nature. 243, 231 - 232.

Farnham, W.F., Murfin, C., Critchley, A., T & Morrell, S., 1981. Distribution and control of the brown alga Sargassum muticum. In: Leuring, T., (ed) Proceedings 10th International Seaweed Symposium. Gruyter & Co, Berlin, 277-282.

Farrell, P. & Fletcher, R., 2006. An investigation of dispersal of the introduced brown alga Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and its competition with some species on the man-made structures of Torquay Marina (Devon, UK). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 334 (2), 236-243.

Farrington, S., Galvez, K., Hoy, S., Ritter, C. & White, M., 2019. Okeanos Explorer ROV Dive Summary: EX-19-07, Dive 12, November 19, 2019. NOAA (National, Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Office of Ocean). Available from:

Farrow, G.E., Syvitski, J.P.M. & Tunnicliffe, V., 1983. Suspended Particulate Loading on the Macrobenthos in a Highly Turbid Fjord: Knight Inlet, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 40 (S1), s273-s288. DOI

Faubel, A., Hartig, E. & Thiel, H., 1983. On the ecology of the benthos of sublittoral sediments, Fladen Ground, North Sea. 1. Meiofauna standing stock and estimation of production. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse, 36, 35-48.

Faucci, A. & Boero, F., 2000. Structure of an epiphytic hydroid community on Cystoseira at two sites of different wave exposure. Scientia Marina, 64 (S1), 255-264.

Fauchald, J. & Jumars, P.A., 1979. The diet of worms: a study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 17, 193-284.

Fauchald, K., 2007. World Register of Polychaeta. Available from:

Fauchald, K., 1977. The polychaete worms. Definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. USA: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

Fauchald, K., 1963. Nephtyidae (Polychaeta) from Norwegian waters. Sarsia, 13, 1-32.

Fauchald, K., & Rouse, G. 1997. Polychaete systematics: past and present. Zoologica Scripta, 26(2), 71-138.

Faulkner, G.H., 1929. The early prophases of the first oocyte division as seen in life in Obelia geniculata. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 73, 225-241.

Fautin D., 2016. Urticina felina Linnaeus, 1761). In World Register of Marine Species [On-line]. Fautin, D.G., 2011. Hexacorallians of the World. [cited 26/01/15]. Available from: < http aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id>

Fautin, D., Zelenchuk, T. & Raveendran, D., 2007. Genera Of Orders Actiniaria And Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia), and their type species. Zootaxa, 1668.

Fautin, D.G., 2016b. Catalog to families, genera, and species of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Zootaxa, 4145 (1), 1-449. DOI

Fauvel, P., 1927. Polychètea sédentaires. In Faune de France, 16, 494 pp. Paris: P. Lechevalier.

Favaro, B., Rutherford, D.T., Duff, S.D., Côté, I.M., 2010. Bycatch of rockfish and other species in British Columbia spot prawn traps: Preliminary assessment using research traps. Fisheries Research 102, 199–206.

Favero-Longo S.E., Cannone N., Roger Worland M., Convey P., Piervittori R. & Guglielmin M., 2011. Changes in lichen diversity and community structure with fur seal population increase on Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. Antarctic Science, 23(1), 65-77. DOI:

Fay, C.W., Neves, R.J. & Pardue, G.B. 1983. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic) Surf Calm. U.S. Fish and wildlife Service, Division of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-82/11.13. U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4.,

Feare, C.J., 1970a. The reproductive cycle of the dog whelk (Nucella lapillus). Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 39, 125-137.

Feare, C.J., 1970b. Aspects of the ecology of an exposed shore population of dogwhelks Nucella lapillus. Oecologia, 5, 1-18.

Feare, C.J., 1971. The adaptive significance of aggregation behaviour in dogwhelks Nucella lapillus (L.). Oecologia, 7, 117-126.

Feare, C.J., 1967. The effect of predation by shore-birds on a population of dogwhelks Thais lapillus. Ibis, 109, 474.

Feder, H.M., 1981. Aspects of the feeding biology of the brittle star Ophiura texturata. Ophelia, 20, 215-235. DOI

Feder, H.M. & Arvidsson, J., 1967. Studies on a sea-star (Marthasterias glacialis) extract responsible for avoidance reactions in a gastropod (Buccinum undatum). Arkiv. Zool., 19, 369-379.

Feder, H.M. & Pearson, T.H., 1988. The benthic ecology of Loch Linnhe and Loch Eil, a sea-loch system on the west coast of Scotland. 5. Biology of the dominant soft-bottom epifauna and their interaction with the infauna. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 116, 99-134. DOI

Fedra, K., Ölscher, E., Scherübel, C., Stachowitsch, M. & Wurzian, R., 1976. On the ecology of a North Adriatic benthic community: distribution, standing crop and composition of the macrobenthos. Marine Biology, 38 (2), 129-145.

FEE, 2002. Foundation for Environmental Education, Blue Flag Awards., 2002-08-06

Feely, R.A., Sabine, C.L., Lee, K., Berelson, W., Kleypas, J., Fabry, V.J. & Millero, F.J., 2004. Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans. Science, 305 (5682), 362-366. DOI

Fegley, J., 2001. Ecological implications of rockweed, Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis, harvesting.  University of Maine, Orono, ME.

Fegley, S.R., MacDonald, B.A. & Jacobsen, T.R., 1992. Short-term variation in the quantity and quality of seston available to benthic suspension feeders. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 34, 393-412.

Fehlauer-Ale, K.H., Winston, J.E., Tilbrook, K.J., Nascimento, K.B. & Vieira, L.M., 2015. Identifying monophyletic groups within Bugula sensu lato (Bryozoa, Buguloidea). Zoologica Scripta, 44 (3), 334-347.

Felder, D.L., Thoma, B.P., Schmidt, W.E., Sauvage, T., Self-Krayesky, S.L., Chistoserdov, A., Bracken-Grissom, H.D. & Fredericq, S., 2014. Seaweeds and Decapod Crustaceans on Gulf Deep Banks after the Macondo Oil Spill. Bioscience, 64 (9), 808-819. DOI

Feldman, K.L., Armstrong, D.A., Dumbauld, B.R., DeWitt, T.H. & Doty, D.C., 2000. Oysters, crabs, and burrowing shrimp: review of an environmental conflict over aquatic resources and pesticide use in Washington State's (USA) coastal estuaries. Estuaries, 23, 141-176. DOI

Felício, A.K.C., Rosa, I.L., Souto, A. & Freitas, R.H.A., 2006. Feeding behavior of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933. Journal of Ethology, 24 (3), 219-225. DOI

Fell, H.B., 1966. The ecology of Ophiuroids. In Boolootian, R.A. (ed.). Physiology of Echinodermata. New York, Interscience Publishers, pp. 129-143.

Fell, P.E., 1974. Diapause in the gemmules of the marine sponge, Haliclona loosanoffi, with a note on the gemmules of Haliclona oculata. The Biological Bulletin, 147 (2), 333-351.

Fell, P.E. & Lewandrowski, K.B., 1981. Population dynamics of the estuarine sponge, Halichondria sp., within a New England eelgrass community. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 55 (1), 49-63.

Fell, P.E., 1989. Porifera. In Reproductive biology of invertebrates vol. IV, part A. Fertilization, development and parental care (ed. K.G & R.G. Adiyodi), pp. 1-41. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Fell, P.E., Parry, E.H. & Balsamo, A.M., 1984. The life histories of sponges in the Mystic and Thames estuaries (Connecticut), with emphasis on larval settlement and postlarval reproduction. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 78 (1), 127-141.

Fenaux, L., 1970. Maturation of the gonads and seasonal cycle of the planktonic larvae of the ophiuroid Amphiura chiajei Forbes. Biological Bulletin, 138, 262-271.

Fenchel, T., 1972. Aspects of decomposer food chains in marine benthos. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gellschaft, 65, 14-22.

Fenchel, T., 1965. Ciliates from Scandinavian Molluscs. Ophelia, 2, 71 - 174.

Fenchel, T.M. & Reidl, R.J., 1970. The sulphide system: a new biotic community underneath the oxidised layer of marine sand bottoms. Marine Biology, 7, 255-268.

Fent, K., 1996. Ecotoxicology of organotin compounds. Critical reviews in toxicology, 26 (1), 3-117.

Fenwick, 2018. Aphotomarine. Occurrence dataset Accessed via on 2018-10-01

Fenwick, D., 2017. Stauromedusae UK - an online guide to the Stalked jellyfish (Stauromedusae) found around the coastal waters of the United Kingdom and Ireland. Penzance, Cornwall.

Ferguson, G., Messenger, J. & Budelmann, B., 1994. Gravity and light influence the countershading reflexes of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Journal of Experimental Biology, 191, 247-256.

Ferguson, M., Last, E. & Robson, L., 2018. Deep-Sea Life - Issue 12. INDEEP Available from

Fernández, P.A., Roleda, M.Y. & Hurd, C.L., 2015. Effects of ocean acidification on the photosynthetic performance, carbonic anhydrase activity and growth of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. 124 (3), 293-304. DOI

Fernández-Torquemada, Y., González-Correa, J.M. & Sánchez-Lizaso, J.L., 2013. Echinoderms as indicators of brine discharge impacts. Desalination and Water Treatment, 51 (1-3), 567-573. DOI

Fernández-Torquemada, Y., Lizaso, S. & Luis, J., 2006. Effects of salinity on growth and survival of Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson and Zostera noltii Hornemann Biologia Marina Mediterranea, 13, 46-47

Fernández-Torquemada, Y., Sánchez-Lizaso, J.L. & González-Correa, J.M., 2005. Preliminary results of the monitoring of the brine discharge produced by the SWRO desalination plant of Alicante (SE Spain). Desalination, 182 (1), 395-402. DOI

Fernandes, F.C. & Seed, R., 1983. The incidence of pearls in populations of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., from North Wales. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 49, 107-115.

Fernandez T.V. & Jones, N.V., 1990. The influence of salinity and temperature on the toxicity of zinc to Nereis diversicolor. Tropical Ecology, 31, 40-46

Fernández, C., 2011. The retreat of large brown seaweeds on the north coast of Spain: the case of Saccorhiza polyschides. European Journal of Phycology, 46 (4), 352-360. DOI

Fernandez, C. & Menendez, M.P., 1991. Ecology of Chondrus crispus on the northern coast of Spain. 2. Reproduction. Botanica Marina, 34, 303-310.

Fernandez, C., Pasqualini, V., Boudouresque, C.-F., Johnson, M., Ferrat, L., Caltagirone, A. & Mouillot, D., 2006. Effect of an exceptional rainfall event on the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) stock and seagrass distribution in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 68 (1), 259-270.

Fernandez, T. V. & Jones, N. V., 1990b. Studies on the toxicity of zinc and copper applied singly and jointly to Nereis diversicolor at different salinities and temperatures. Tropical Ecology, 31 (1), 47-55.

Fernandez, T.V. & Jones, N.V., 1987. Some studies on the effect of zinc on Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta: Annelida). Tropical Ecology, 28, 9-21.

Fernandez, T.V. & Jones, N.V., 1990. The influence of salinity and temperature on the toxicity of zinc to Nereis diversicolor. Tropical Ecology, 31, 40-46.

Fernandez T.V. & Jones, N.V., 1990. The influence of salinity and temperature on the toxicity of zinc to Nereis diversicolor. Tropical Ecology, 31, 40-46.

Fernandez-Arcaya, U., Ramirez-Llodra, E., Aguzzi, J., Allcock, A.L., Davies, J.S., Dissanayake, A., Harris, P.M., Howell, K.L., Huvenne, V.A.I., Macmillan-Lawler, M., Martín, J., Menot, L., Nizinski, M., Puig, P., Rowden, A.A., Sanchez, F. & Van den Beld, I.M.J., 2017. Ecological Role of Submarine Canyons and Need for Canyon Conservation: A Review. Frontiers in Marine Science, 4. DOI

Fernandez-Gonzalez, V., Martinez-Garcia, E. & Sanchez-Jerez, P., 2016. Role of fish farm fouling in recolonisation of nearby soft-bottom habitats affected by coastal aquaculture. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 474, 210-215.

Fernandez‐Leborans, G. & Gabilondo, R., 2006. Taxonomy and distribution of the hydrozoan and protozoan epibionts on Pagurus bernhardus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Scotland. Acta Zoologica, 87, 33-48.

Ferns, P.N., 1983. Sediment mobility in the Severn Estuary and its effect upon the distribution of shorebirds. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, , 331-340.

Ferns, P.N., Rostron, D.M. & Siman, H.Y., 2000. Effects of mechanical cockle harvesting on intertidal communities. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 464-474.

Ferrand, J.G., Vadon, C., Doumenc, D & Guille, A., 1988. The effect of depth on the reproductive cycle of Brissopsis lyrifera (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) in the Gulf of Lions, Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology, 99, 387-392.

Fialkowski, W., Rainbow, P.S., Fialkowska, E. & Smith, B.D., 2000. Biomonitoring of trace metals along the Baltic coast of Poland using the sand hopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu) (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Ophelia, 52, 183-192.

Fiana-Medioni, A., 1978. A scanning electron microscope study of the branchial sac of benthic filter-feeding invertebrates (ascidians). Acta Zoologica, 59, 1, 1-9.

Fiege, D., Licher, F. & Mackie, A.S.Y., 2000. A partial review of the European Magelonidae (Annelida : Polychaeta) Magelona mirabilis redefined and M. johnstoni sp. nov. distinguished. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80, 215-234.

Field, R.H., Chapman, C.J., Taylor, A.C., Neil, D.M. & Vickerman, K., 1992. Infection of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus by a Hematodinium-like species of dinoflagellate on the west coast of Scotland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 13, 1-15.

Fife Nature Records Centre, 2018. Fife Nature Records Centre combined dataset. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-09-27.

Fife Nature Records Centre, 2018. St Andrews BioBlitz 2014. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-09-27.

Fife Nature Records Centre, 2018. St Andrews BioBlitz 2015. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-09-27.

Fife Nature Records Centre, 2018. St Andrews BioBlitz 2016. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-09-27.

Figueiredo, M.J. & Thomas, H.J., 1967. Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) Leech - A Review. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 5, 371-407.

Figuerola, B., Gordon, D.P. & Cristobo, J., 2018. New deep Cheilostomata (Bryozoa) species from the Southwestern Atlantic: shedding light in the dark. Zootaxa, 4375 (2). DOI

Filbee-Dexter, Karen & Wernberg, Thomas, 2018. Rise of Turfs: A New Battlefront for Globally Declining Kelp Forests. BioScience, 68 (2), 64-76. DOI

Filiciotto, F., Vazzana, M., Celi, M., Maccarrone, V., Ceraulo, M., Buffa, G., Stefano, V.D., Mazzola, S. & Buscaino, G., 2014. Behavioural and biochemical stress responses of Palinurus elephas after exposure to boat noise pollution in tank. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 84, 104-114.

Filion-Myclebust, C. & Norton, T.A., 1981. Epidermis shedding in the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis, and its ecological significance. Marine Biology Letters, 2, 45-51.

Filippov, A.A., Komendantov, A.Y. & Khalaman, V.V., 2003. Salinity tolerance of the White Sea mollusk Hiatella arctica L. (Bivalvia, Heterodonta). Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 82 (8), 913-918.

Fillinger, L. & Richter, C., 2013. Vertical and horizontal distribution of Desmophyllum dianthus in Comau Fjord, Chile: a cold-water coral thriving at low pH. PeerJ, 1, e194. DOI

Fincham, A.A., 1970a. Amphipods in the surf plankton. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 50, 177-198.

Fincham, A.A., 1970b. Rhythmic behaviour of the intertidal amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 50, 1057-1068.

Fincham, J., 2016b. Starlet sea anemone: Suffolk. In White Admiral, 94, 29-31. Ipswich: Suffolk Naturalists Society.

Fincham, J., 2016a. Norfolk's starlet anemone: a brief popuation update. In Biodiversity News, 73, 28-30. Peterborough: Defra.

Findlay, H.S., Burrows, M.T., Kendall, M.A., Spicer, J.I. & Widdicombe, S., 2010a. Can ocean acidification affect population dynamics of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides at its southern range edge? 91 (10), 2931-2940. DOI

Findlay, H.S., Hennige, S.J., Wicks, L.C., Navas, J.M., Woodward, E.M.S. & Roberts, J.M., 2014. Fine-scale nutrient and carbonate system dynamics around cold-water coral reefs in the northeast Atlantic. Scientific Reports, 4, 3671. DOI Available from

Findlay, H.S., Kendall, M.A., Spicer, J.I. & Widdicombe, S., 2009. Future high CO2 in the intertidal may compromise adult barnacle Semibalanus balanoides survival and embryonic development rate. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 389, 193-202. DOI

Findlay, H.S., Kendall, M.A., Spicer, J.I. & Widdicombe, S., 2010b. Relative influences of ocean acidification and temperature on intertidal barnacle post-larvae at the northern edge of their geographic distribution. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 86 (4), 675-682. DOI

Findlay, R.H., 2002. Test of a model that predicts benthic impact of salmon net pen aquaculture., 2026-04-02

Firth, L., Thompson, R., Bohn, K., Abbiati, M., Airoldi, L., Bouma, T., Bozzeda, F., Ceccherelli, V., Colangelo, M. & Evans, A., 2014. Between a rock and a hard place: Environmental and engineering considerations when designing coastal defence structures. Coastal Engineering, 87, 122-135.

Firth, L.B., Mieszkowska, N., Grant, L.M., Bush, L.E., Davies, A.J., Frost, M.T., Moschella, P.S., Burrows, M.T., Cunningham, P.N., Dye, S.R. & Hawkins, S.J., 2015. Historical comparisons reveal multiple drivers of decadal change of an ecosystem engineer at the range edge. 5 (15), 3210-3222. DOI

Firth, L.B., Thompson, R.C., White, F.J., Schofield, M., Skov, M.W., Hoggart, S.P.G., Jackson, J., Knights, A.M. & Hawkins, S.J., 2013. The importance of water-retaining features for biodiversity on artificial intertidal coastal defence structures. Diversity and Distributions, 19 (10), 1275-1283.

Fischer, P. H., 1948. Donnees sur la resistance et le vitalite des mollusques. Journal de Conchyliologie, 88, 100-140.

Fish, J,D., Fish, S., 2011. A Students Guide to the Seashore (Third edition). Cambridge: University press.

Fish, J. D., 1972. The breeding cycle and growth of open coast and estuarine populations of Littorina littorea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 52, 1011-1019.

Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 1996. A student's guide to the seashore. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 1977a. The veliger larva of Hydrobia ulvae with observations on the veliger of Littorina littorea (Mollusca: Prosobranchia). Journal of Zoology, 182, 495-503.

Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 1977b. The effects of temperature and salinity on embryonic development of Hydrobia ulvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 213-218.

Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 1974. The breeding cycle and growth of Hydrobia ulvae in the Dovey estuary. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 54, 685-697.

Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 1978. Observations on an annual migration of Bathyporeia pelagica (Amphipoda, Haustoriidae). Crustaceana, 35, 215-221.

Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 1972. The swimming rhythm of Eurydice pulchra Leach and a possible explanation of intertidal migration. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 8, 195-200.

Fish, J.D. & Mills, A., 1979. The reproductive biology of Corophium volutator and C. arenarium (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 59, 355-368.

Fish, J.D. & Preece, G.S., 1970. The annual reproductive patterns of Bathyporeia pilosa and Bathyporeia pelagica (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 50, 475-488.

Fish, J.D., 1979. The yellow pigment cells of Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) (Mollusca: Prosobranchia). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 45, 345-352.

Fish, J.D., 1975. Development, hatching and brood size in Bathyporeia pilosa and B. pelagica (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 55, 357-368.

Fish, S., 1970. The biology of Eurydice pulchra (Crustacea: Isopoda). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 50, 753-768.

FishBase, 2000. FishBase. A global information system on fishes. [On-line], 2001-05-03

Fisher, C.R., Hsing, P.-Y., Kaiser, C.L., Yoerger, D.R., Roberts, H.H., Shedd, W.W., Cordes, E.E., Shank, T.M., Berlet, S.P., Saunders, M.G., Larcom, E.A. & Brooks, J.M., 2014. Footprint of Deepwater Horizon blowout impact to deep-water coral communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111 (32), 11744-11749. DOI

Fisher, Charles R., Hsing, Pen-Yuan, Kaiser, Carl L., Yoerger, Dana R., Roberts, Harry H., Shedd, William W., Cordes, Erik E., Shank, Timothy M., Berlet, Samantha P., Saunders, Miles G., Larcom, Elizabeth A. & Brooks, James M., 2014. Footprint of Deepwater Horizon blowout impact to deep-water coral communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111 (32), 11744-11749. DOI

Fisher, J.A. & Beeton, A.M., 1975. The effect of dissolved oxygen on the burrowing behaviour of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Oligochaeta). Hydrobiologia, 47, 223-290.

Fishman, J.R. & Orth, R.J., 1996. Effects of predation on Zostera marina L. seed abundance. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 198, 11-26.

Fitt, W.K., Coon, S.L., Walch, M., Weiner, R.M., Colwell, R.R. & Gonar, D.B., 1990. Settlement behaviour and metamorphosis of oyster larvae (Crassostrea gigas) in response to bacterial supernatants. Marine Biology, 106, 389–394.

Fitzer, S.C., Wenzhong, Z.K., Tanner, E., Phoenix, V.R., Kamenos, N.A. & Cusack, M., 2015. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells. Journal of the Royal Society. Interface, 12 (103). DOI

FitzGerald, A., 2007. Slipper Limpet Utilisation and Management. Final Report. Port of Truro Oyster Management Group., Truro, 101 pp. Available from

Flach, E. & Thomsen, L., 1998. Do physical and chemical factors structure the macrobenthic community at a continental slope in the NE Atlantic? Hydrobiologia, 375/376, 265-285. DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-2864-5_22

Flach, E., Lavaleye, M., De Stigter, H. & Thomsen, L., 1998. Feeding types of the benthic community and particle transport across the slope of the NW European continental margin (Goban Spur). Progress in Oceanography, 42 (1-4), 209-231.

Flach, E.C., 1993. The distribution of the amphipod Corophium arenarium in the Dutch Wadden Sea- relationships with sediment composition and the presence of cockles and lugworms. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 31 (3), 281-290.

Flach, E.C. & De Bruin, W., 1993. Effects of Arenicola marina and Cerastoderma edule on distribution, abundance and population structure of Corophium volutator in Gullmarsfjorden western Sweden. Sarsia, 78, 105-118.

Flach, E.C. & De Bruin, W., 1994. Does the activity of cockles, Cerastoderma edule (L.) and lugworms, Arenicola marina (L.), make Corophium volutator Pallas more vulnerable to epibenthic predators: a case of interaction modification? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 182, 265-285.

Flach, E.C., 1992. Disturbance of benthic infauna by sediment-reworking activities of the lugworm Arenicola marina. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 30, 81-89.

Flach, E.C., 1996. The influence of the cockle, Cerastoderma edule, on the macrozoobenthic community of tidal flats of the Wadden Sea. Marine Biology, 17, 87-98.

Flach, E.C., 1991. Disturbance of benthic infauna by sediment-reworking activities of the lugworm Arenicola marina. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 30, 81-89.

Flach, E.C., 1992. The influence of four macrozoobenthic species on the abundance of the amphipod Corophium volutator on tidal flats of the Wadden Sea. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 29: 379-394

Flemer, D.A., Stanley, R.S., Ruth, B.F., Bundrick, C.M., Moody, P.H. & Moore, J.C., 1995. Recolonization of estuarine organisms: effects of microcosm size and pesticides. Hydrobiologia, 304 (2), 85-101.

Flemer, D.A., Stanley, R.S., Ruth, B.F., Bundrick, C.M., Moody, P.H. & Moore, J.C. 1995. Recolonization of estuarine organisms - effects of microcosm size and pesticides. Hydrobiologia, 304, 85-101.

Fletcher, A., 1975a. Key for the identification of British marine and maritime lichens. 1. Siliceous rocky shore species. Lichenologist, 7, 1-52.

Fletcher, A., 1975b. Key for the identification of British marine and maritime lichens. II. Calcereous and terricolous species. Lichenologist, 7, 73-115.

Fletcher, A., 1973a. The ecology of marine (littoral) lichens on some rocky shores of Anglesey. Lichenologist, 5, 368-400.

Fletcher, A., 1973b. The ecology of maritime (supralittoral) lichens on some rocky shores of Anglesey. Lichenologist, 5, 401-422.

Fletcher, A., 1980. Marine and maritime lichens of rocky shores: their ecology, physiology, and biological interactions. In The Shore Environment, vol. 2: Ecosystems (ed. J.H. Price, D.E.G. Irvine & W.F. Farnham), pp. 789-842. London: Academic Press. [Systematics Association Special Volume no. 17(b)].

Fletcher, G.L., King, M.J. & Kao, M.H., 1987. Low temperature regulation of antifreeze glycopeptide levels in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65, 227-233.

Fletcher, H. & Frid, C.L.J., 1996b. The response of an inter-tidal algal community to persistent trampling and the implications for rocky shore management. In Jones, P.S., Healy, M.G. & Williams, A.T. (ed.) Studies in European coastal management., Cardigan, Wales: Samara Publishing

Fletcher, H. & Frid, C.L.J., 1996a. Impact and management of visitor pressure on rocky intertidal algal communities. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 6, 287-297.

Fletcher, N. & Curtis, D. 1999. Cetacean monitoring in the English Channel and Bay of Biscay, from platform of opportunity, over six years period (1993-1998) European Research on Cetaceans, 13, 210

Fletcher, R. & Farrell, P., 1998. Introduced brown algae in the North East Atlantic, with particular respect to Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 52 (3-4), 259-275.

Fletcher, R. & Fletcher, S., 1975a. Studies on the recently introduced brown alga Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt I. Ecology and reproduction. Botanica Marina, 18 (3), 149-156.

Fletcher, R.L. & Callow, M.E., 1992. The settlement, attachment and establishment of marine algal spores. British Phycological Journal, 27, 303-329.

Fletcher, R.L. & Manfredi, C., 1995. The occurrence of Undaria pinnatifida (Phyaeophyceae, Laminariales) on the South Coast of England. Botanica Marina, 38 (4), 355-358.

Fletcher, R.L., 1996. The occurrence of 'green tides' - a review. In Marine Benthic Vegetation. Recent changes and the Effects of Eutrophication (ed. W. Schramm & P.H. Nienhuis). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. [Ecological Studies, vol. 123].

Fletcher, R.L., 1987. Seaweeds of the British Isles vol. 3. Fucophyceae (Phaeophyceae) Part 1. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Fletcher, R.L., 1980b. The algal communities of floating structures in Portsmouth and Langstone Harbours (South Coast of England. In The Shore Environment, vol. 2: Ecosystems (ed. J.H. Price, D.E.G. Irvine & W.F. Farnham), pp. 789-842. London: Academic Press. [Systematics Association Special Volume no. 17(b)].

Fletcher, S., Saunders, J. & Herbert, R.J., 2011. A review of the ecosystem services provided by broad-scale marine habitats in England's MPA network. Journal of Coastal Research, 64, 378.

Flindt, M.R., Pedersen, C.B., Amos, C.L., Levy, A., Bergamasco, A. & Friend, P., 2007. Transport, sloughing and settling rates of estuarine macrophytes: Mechanisms and ecological implications. Continental Shelf Research, 27 (8), 1096-1103.

Floc'h, J. H. & Diouris, M., 1980. Initial effects of Amoco Cadiz oil on intertidal algae. Ambio, 9, 284-286.

Flora Celtica Database, 2000. Flora Celtic Database.[on-line], 2001-05-03

Flores-Moya, A., Fernandez-Garcia, J.A. & Niell, F.X., 1992. Influences of lightintensity and temperature on the summer disappearance of Laurencia pinnatifida (Ceramiales Rhodophyta). Cryptogamic Botany, 2 (4), 345-350.

Flores-Tena, F.J. & Martinez-Tabche, L., 2001. The effect of chromium on the haemoglobin concentration of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 50, 196-202.

Floss, A., Stefansson, S.O., Roth, B., Imsland, A.K., 2007. Interactive effects of oxgen saturation and ammonia on growth and physiology in juvenile turbot. Aquaculture 271, 244-251

Fockedey, N., Ghekiere, A., Bruwiere, S., Janssen, C.R. & Vincx, M., 2006. Effect of salinity and temperature on the intra-marsupial development of the brackish water mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea). Marine Biology, 148 (6), 1339-1356.

Fockedey, N., Mees, J., Vangheluwe, M., Verslycke, T., Janssen, C.R. & Vincx, M., 2005. Temperature and salinity effects on post-marsupial growth of Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea). Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology, 326 (1), 27-47.

Foekema, E.M., Kaag, N., Kramer, K.J.M. & Long, K., 2015. Mesocosm validation of the marine No Effect Concentration of dissolved copper derived from a species sensitivity distribution. Science of the Total Environment, 521, 173-182. DOI

Foekema, E.M., Kaag, N., Kramer, K.J.M. & Long, K., 2015. Mesocosm validation of the marine No Effect Concentration of dissolved copper derived from a species sensitivity distribution. Science of the Total Environment, 521, 173-182. DOI

Fofonoff, P., Ruiz, G., Steves, B., Hines, A. & Carlton, J., 2003. National exotic marine and estuarine species information system. Web publication< http://invasions. si. edu/nemesis.

Fofonoff, P., Ruiz, G., Steves, B., Hines, A. & Carlton, J., 2014. National exotic marine and estuarine species information system. Web publication< http://invasions. si. edu/nemesis.

Fofonoff, P.W., Ruiz, G.M., Steves, B., & Carlton, J.T., 2015.  National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS). Available from Access Date: 26-Aug -2015

Fojt, W. & Foster, A., 1992. Reedbeds, their wildlife and requirements. Botanical and invertebrate aspects of reedbeds, their ecological requirements and conservation significance. In Reedbeds for wildlife (ed. D. Ward), pp. 49-56. Sandy, Bedfordshire: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) / University of Bristol.

Folino, N.C., 1999. The freshwater expansion and classification of the colonial hydroid Cordylophora (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa). In Proceedings of the first National Conference, Massachusetts Institiute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 1999. Marine Bioinvasions, pp. 139-144.

Folino-Rorem, N.C. & Indelicato, J., 2005. Controlling biofouling caused by the colonial hydroid Cordylophora caspia. Water Research, 39 (12), 2731-2737.

Folino-Rorem, N.C., Darling, J.A. & D’Ausilio, C.A., 2009. Genetic analysis reveals multiple cryptic invasive species of the hydrozoan genus Cordylophora. Biological Invasions, 11, 1869-1882.

Folk, R.L., 1954. The distinction between grain size and mineral composition in sedimentary-rock nomenclature. 62The Journal of Geology, 344-359.

Folkow, L.P. & Blix, A.S., 1999. Diving behaviour of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) in the Greenland and Norwegian Seas. Polar Biology, 22 (1), 61-74. DOI

Folkow, L.P., Ramirez, J.M., Ludvigsen, S., Ramirez, N. & Blix, A.S., 2008. Remarkable neuronal hypoxia tolerance in the deep-diving adult hooded seal (Cystophora cristata). Neuroscience Letters, 446 (2-3), 147-150. DOI

Follesa, M., Cannas, R., Cau, A., Cuccu, D., Gastoni, A., Ortu, A., Pedoni, C., Porcu, C. & Cau, A., 2011. Spillover effects of a Mediterranean marine protected area on the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) resource. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 21, 564-572.

Follesa, M., Cuccu, D., Cannas, R., Sabatini, A. & Cau, A., 2007. Emigration and retention of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) in a central western Mediterranean marine protected area. 71, 279-285.

Follesa, M., Cannas, R., Cau, A., Cuccu, D., Mulas, A., Porcu, C., Saba, S. & Cau, A., 2014. Homing and orientation of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius) in three no-take areas of the central-western Mediterranean: Implications for marine reserve design. Marine and Freshwater Research, 66, 1-9

Follesa, M., Cuccu, D., Cannas, R., Sabatini, A., Maria Deiana, A. & Cau, A., 2009. Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) from a central western Mediterranean protected area. Scientia Marina, 73, 499-506.

Follesa, M.C., Cuccu, D., Cannas, R. & Cau, A., 2007. On the growth of the European spiny lobster, Palinurus elephas from Sardinian waters (central western Mediterranean Sea). New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 41, 377-383.

Fonds, M. & van Buurt, G., 1974. The influence of temperature and salinity on the development and survival of goby eggs (Pisces, Gobiidae). Hydrobiological Bulleting (Amsterdam), 8, 110-116.

Fonds, M. & Veldhuis, C., 1973. The oxygen consumption of four Pomatoschistus species (Pisces, Gobiidae) in relation to water temperature. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 7, 376-386.

Fonds, M., 1973. Sand gobies in the Dutch Wadden Sea (Pomatoschistus, Gobiidae, Pisces). Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 6, 417-478.

Fonseca, M.S. & Bell, S.S., 1998. Influence of physical setting on seagrass landscapes near Beaufort, North Carolina, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 171, 109.

Fonseca, M.S., 1992. Restoring seagrass systems in the United States. In Restoring the Nation's Marine Environment (ed. G.W. Thayer), pp. 79 -110. Maryland: Maryland Sea Grant College.

Fonseca, M.S., Thayer, G.W., Chester, A.J. & Foltz, C., 1984. Impact of scallop harvesting on eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 4 (3), 286-293.

Fonseca, M.S., Zieman, J.C., Thayer, G.W. & Fisher, J.S., 1983. The role of current velocity in structuring eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 17 (4), 367-380.

Fonseca, Mark, Piniak, Gregory A. & Cosentino-Manning, Natalie, 2017. Susceptibility of seagrass to oil spills: A case study with eelgrass, Zostera marina in San Francisco Bay, USA. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 115 (1), 29-38. DOI

Fonseca, P., Abrantes, F., Aguilar, R., Campos, A., Cunha, M., Ferreira, D., Fonseca, T.P., García, S., Henriques, V., Machado, M., Mechó, A., Relvas, P., Rodrigues, C.F., Salgueiro, E., Vieira, R., Weetman, A. & Castro, M., 2014. A deep-water crinoid Leptometra celtica bed off the Portuguese south coast. Marine Biodiversity, 44 (2), 223-228. DOI

Fonseca, T.G., Morais, M.B., Rocha, T., Abessa, D.M.S., Aureliano, M. & Bebianno, M.J., 2017. Ecotoxicological assessment of the anticancer drug cisplatin in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Science of the Total Environment, 575, 162-172. DOI

Forbes, E. & Hanley, S., 1853. A history of British Mollusca and their shells, vol. 1-4. London: John van Voorst.

Forbes, L., Seward, M.J. & Crisp, D.J., 1971. Orientation to light and the shading response in barnacles. In: Proceedings of the 4th European Marine Biology Symposium. Ed. Crisp, D.J., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp 539-558.

Forbes, M.R., Boates, S.J., McNeil, N.L. & Brison, A.E., 1996. Mate searching by males of the intertidal amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74, 1479-1484.

Forbes, T.L. & Lopez, G.R., 1990. The effect of food concentration, body size, and environmental oxygen tension on the growth of the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella species 1. Limnology and Oceanography, 35 (7), 1535-1544.

Ford, E,. 1925. On the growth of some lamellibranchs in relation to the food supply of fishes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 13, 531-559.

Ford, E., 1923. Animal communities of the level sea-bottom in the water adjacent to Plymouth. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 13, 164-224.

Ford, R.B. & Paterson, D.M., 2001. Behaviour of Corophium volutator in still versus flowing water. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 52, 357-362.

Fordham, M.G.C., 1925. Aphrodite aculeta Liverpool: Liverpool Marine Biology Committee. [L.M.B.C. Memoirs XXVII].

Form, A.U. & Riebesell, U., 2012. Acclimation to ocean acidification during long‐term CO2 exposure in the cold‐water coral Lophelia pertusa. Global Change Biology, 18 (3), 843-853.

Forrest, B.M. & Taylor, M.D., 2002. Assessing invasion impact: Survey design considerations and implications for management of an invasive marine plant. Biological Invasions, 4 (4), 375-386. DOI

Forrest, B. M., Keeley, N.B., Hopkins, G.A., Webb, S.C. & Clement, D.M., 2009. Bivalve aquaculture in estuaries: Review and synthesis of oyster cultivation effects. Aquaculture 298 (1–2), 1-15.

Forrest, B.M., Gardner, J.P.A. & Taylor, M.D., 2009. Internal borders for managing invasive marine species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 46-54.

Forster, G.R., 1979. Mortality of the bottom fauna and fish in St Austell Bay and neighbouring areas. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 59, 517-520.

Forster, G.R., 1955. Hemimycale columella (Bowerbank): a short description and history of the species. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 34, 553-557.

Forster, S. & Graf, G., 1995. Impact of irrigation on oxygen flux into the sediment: intermittent pumping by Callianassa subterranea and "piston pumping" by Lanice conchilega. Marine Biology, 123, 335-346.

Forsythe, J.W., DeRusha, R.H. & Hanlon, R.T., 1994. Growth, reproduction and life span of Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda: Mollusca) cultured through seven consecutive generations. Journal of the Zoological Society of London, 233, 175-192.

Fortes, M.D. & Lüning, K., 1980. Growth rates of North Sea macroalgae in relation to temperature, irradiance and photoperiod. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen, 34, 15-29.

Forth River Purification Board, 1992. Annual monitoring of the fauna and sediments in the estuary of and Firth of Forth 1991/92. Unpublished, Forth River Purification Board. (Tidal Waters Report, No. TW19/92)., Unpublished, Forth River Purification Board. (Tidal Waters Report, No. TW19/92).

Fortunato, H., Schäfer, P. & Blaschek, H., 2013. Growth Rates, Age Determination, and Calcification Levels in Flustra foliacea (L.) (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata): Preliminary Assessment. In Ernst, A., et al. (eds.). Bryozoan Studies 2010, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 59-74.

Fosså, J.H., Mortensen, P.B. & Furevik, D.M., 2002. The deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa in Norwegian waters: distribution and fishery impacts. Hydrobiologia, 471, 1-12. DOI

Fossa, J. H., Mortensen, P. B. & Furevik, D. M., 2002. The deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa in Norwegian waters: distribution and fishery impacts. Hydrobiologia, 471, 1-12. DOI

Fosså, J.H., 2003. Coral reefs in Norway. [On-line], 2003-03-27

Fossi, M.C., Baini, M., Campani, T., Casini, S., Caliani, I., Coppola, D., Marsili, L., Guerranti, C. & Panti, C., 2014a. The impact of macro and micro-plastics on Mediterranean large vertebrates: Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic (PBT) substances, plastic additives and related toxicological effects: CIESM Publisher, Monaco.

Fossi, M.C., Coppola, D., Baini, M., Giannetti, M., Guerranti, C., Marsili, L., Panti, C., de Sabata, E. & Clo, S., 2014b. Large filter feeding marine organisms as indicators of microplastic in the pelagic environment: The case studies of the Mediterranean basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus). Marine Environmental Research, 100, 17-24.

Fossi, M.C., Panti, C., Guerranti, C., Coppola, D., Giannetti, M., Marsili, L. & Minutoli, R., 2012. Are baleen whales exposed to the threat of microplastics? A case study of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64 (11), 2374-2379.

Foster, B.A., 1969. Tolerance of high temperatures by some intertidal barnacles. Marine Biology, 4, 326-332.

Foster, B.A., 1971b. On the determinants of the upper limit of intertidal distribution of barnacles. Journal of Animal Ecology, 40, 33-48.

Foster, B.A., 1970. Responses and acclimation to salinity in the adults of some balanomorph barnacles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 256, 377-400.

Foster, B.A., 1971a. Desiccation as a factor in the intertidal zonation of barnacles. Marine Biology, 8, 12-29.

Foster, M., Neushul, M., Zingmark, R., 1971. The Santa Barbara oil spill Part 2: Initial effects on intertidal and kelp bed organisms. Environmental Pollution, 2 (2), 115-134. DOI

Foster, M.S., 2001. Rhodoliths: between rocks and soft places. Journal of Phycology, 37 (5), 659-667.

Foster, P., Hunt, D.T.E. & Morris, A.W., 1978. Metals in an acid mine stream and estuary. Science of the Total Environment, 9, 75-86.

Foster, S.J. & Vincent, A.C.J., 2004. Life history and ecology of seahorses: implications for conservation and management. Journal of Fish Biology, 65 (1), 1-61. DOI

Foster-Smith R.L. 2001a. Report of the field survey for the 2001 Sabellaria spinulosa project. Eastern Sea Fisheries Joint Committee and English Nature,  45 pp.

Foster-Smith R.L. 2001b. Sabellaria spinulosa reef in the Wash and North Norfolk Coast cSAC and its approaches: Part II, fine scale mapping of the spatial and temporal distribution of reefs and the development of techniques for monitoring condition. English Nature Research Reports, English Nature, Peterborough, 544.

Foster-Smith, J. (ed.), 2000. The marine fauna and flora of the Cullercoats District. Marine species records for the North East Coast of England. Sunderland: Penshaw Press, for the Dove Marine Laboratory, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

Foster-Smith, R-L., 1991. A boulder survey of the Isles of Scilly, September 5th to 9th, 1990. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, unpub. NCC CSD Rep. 1226, 27pp.

Foster-Smith, R.L. & Hendrick, V.J., 2003. Sabellaria spinulosa reef in The Wash and North Norfolk cSAC and its approaches: Part III, summary of knowledge, recommended monitoring strategies and outstanding research requirements. Rep. 543.

Foster-Smith, R.L., 1989. A survey of boulder habitats on the Northumberland coast with a discussion on survey methods for boulder habitats. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, unpub. NCC CSD Rep. 921, 76pp.

Foster-Smith, R.L., & Foster-Smith, J.L., 1987. A marine biological survey of Beadnell to Dunstanburgh Castle, Northumberland (a contribution to the Marine Nature Conservation Review). Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, unpub. NCC CSD Rep. 798, 82pp.

Foubert, A., Beck, T., Wheeler, A. J., Opderbecke, J., Grehan, A., Klages, M., Thiede, J. & Henriet, J.-P., 2005. New view of the Belgica Mounds, Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic: preliminary results from the Polarstern ARK-XIX/3a ROV cruise. In Freiwald, André and Roberts, J. Murray (eds.). Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 403-415.

Fowler, S., 2005. Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2005:e.T4292A10763893. DOI

Fowler, S. & Laffoley, D., 1993. Stability in Mediterranean-Atlantic sessile epifaunal communities at the northern limits of their range. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 172 (1), 109-127. DOI

Fowler, S.L., 2009. Cetorhinus maximus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T39340A10207099. Available from

Fowler, S.L. & Pilley, G.M., 1992. Report on the Lundy and Isles of Scilly marine monitoring programmes 1984-1991. English Nature, Research Report no. 9.

Fowler, S.L. & Tittley, I., 1993. The marine nature conservation importance of British coastal chalk cliff habitats. English Nature Research Reports, no. 32.

Fowler, S.L., 1999. Guidelines for managing the collection of bait and other shoreline animals within UK European marine sites. Natura 2000 report prepared by the Nature Conservation Bureau Ltd. for the UK Marine SACs Project, 132 pp., Peterborough: English Nature (UK Marine SACs Project).,

Fowles, A., 1994. Invertebrates of Wales: a review of important sites and species. Invertebrates of Wales: a review of important sites and species., JNCC Peterborough.

Fox, R., 1994. Ciona intestinalis: invertebrate anatomy., 2000-05-10

Fox, R., 1994. Littorina littorea: invertebrate anatomy., 2000-05-17

Foyn, L. & Serigstad, B., 1988. Oil Exploration in New Offshore Fields. Fish Larvae as the Critical Component in the Assessment of Potential Consequences for the Fish Resources. ICES Council Meeting Papers, ICES CM-1988/E: 18, 8.

Frésard, M. & Boncoeur, J., 2006. Costs and benefits of stock enhancement and biological invasion control: the case of the Bay of Brest scallop fishery. Aquatic Living Resources, 19 (3), 299-305.

Fralick, R.A. & Mathieson, A.C., 1972. Winter fragmentation of Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot ssp. tomentosoides (van Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Siphonales) in New England. Phycologia, 11 (1), 67-70.

Francesch, O. & Lopez-Jamar, E., 1991. Dynamics, growth and production of Abra alba and Abra nitida from La Coruna, NW of Spain. Boletin del Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Madrid, 7, 101-113.

Francis, L., 1976. Social organization within clones of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. The Biological Bulletin, 150 (3), pp.361-376.

Francis, M. P. & Duffy, C., 2002. Distribution, seasonal abundance and bycatch of basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in New Zealand, with observations on their winter habitat. Marine Biology, 140, 831–842.

Franco, B., 2004. European Union Mediterranean Fisheries and exploited resources. Scientific, technical and economic committee for fisheries (STECF) 505 pp. 

Francois, Roger, Short, Frederick T. & Weber, James H., 1989. Accumulation and persistence of tributyltin in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) tissue. Environmental Science & Technology, 23 (2), 191-196. DOI

Franham, W. F., Blunden, G., Gordon, S.M. 1985. Occurrence and pigment analysis of the sponge endobiont Microspora ficulinae (Chlorophyceae). Botanica Marina, 28, 79-81.

Frank, D., Ewert, L., Shumway, S. & Ward, J.E., 2000. Effects of clay suspensions on clearance rate in three species of benthic invertebrates. Journal of Shellfish Research, 19, 663.

Frank, M.G., Waldrop, R.H., Dumoulin, M., Aton, S. & Boal, J.G., 2012. A preliminary analysis of sleep-like states in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. PLoS ONE, 7, e38125.

Frank, P.G. & Bleakney, J.S., 1978. Asexual reproduction, diet, and anomalies of the anemone Nematostella vectensis in Nova Scotia. The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 92, 259-263.

Franklin, A. & Pickett, G.D., 1978. Studies of the indirect effects of fishing on stocks of cockles, Cardium edule, in the Thames estuary and Wash. Fisheries Research, Technical Report, no. 42, MAFF, Lowestoft, pp. 9.

Franklin, A. M., Rivera, A., Robbins, J. & Pechenik, J. A., 2023. Body mass index does not decline during winter for the sedentary marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata. Biology Letters, 19 (6). DOI

Franssen, S.U., Gu, J., Bergmann, N., Winters, G., Klostermeier, U.C., Rosenstiel, P., Bornberg-Bauer, E. & Reusch, T.B.H., 2011. Transcriptomic resilience to global warming in the seagrass Zostera marina, a marine foundation species. 108 (48), 19276-19281. DOI

Fransz, H.G. & Gieskes, W.N.C., 1984. The imbalance of phytoplankton and copepods in the North Sea. Rapports et Procés - Verbaux des réunion du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 183, 218-225.

Frantz, B. R., Kashgarian, M., Coale, K. H. & Foster, M.S. 2000. Growth rate and potential climate record from a rhodolith using 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. Limnology and Oceanography, 45, 1773-1777.

Franzén, Å., 1977. Gametogenesis of bryozoans. In Biology of Bryozoans (ed. R.M. Woollacott & R.L. Zimmer), pp. 1-22. New York: Academic Press.

Franzen, N.C.M., 1995. Shear wave detection by Macoma balthica.

Fraser, C.M., 1944. Hydroids of the Atlantic coast of North America. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Fraser, C.M., 1937. Hydroids of the Pacific Coast of Canada and the United States. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Fraser, J.H., 1936. The occurrence, ecology and life-history of Tigriopus fulvus (Fischer). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 20, 523-536.

Fraser, M.W., Kendrick, G.A., Statton, J., Hovey, R.K., Zavala-Perez, A. & Walker, D.I., 2014. Extreme climate events lower resilience of foundation seagrass at edge of biogeographical range. 102 (6), 1528-1536. DOI

Frazer, A.W.J., Brown, M.T. & Bannister, P., 1988. The frost resistance of some littoral and sub-littoral algae from southern New Zealand. Botanica Marina, 31, 461-464.

Fréchet, A., 1990. Catchability variations of cod in the marginal ice zone. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 47, 1678-1683.

Frechette, M., Butman, C.A., Geyer, W.R., 1989. The importance of boundary-layer flow in supplying phytoplankton to the benthic suspension feeder, Mytilus edulis L. Limnology and Oceanography, 34, 19-36.

Fredericq, S., Arakaki, N., Camacho, O., Gabriel, D., Krayesky, D., Self-Krayesky, S., Rees, G., Richards, J., Sauvage, T., Venera-Ponton, D. & Schmidt, W.E., 2014. A Dynamic Approach to the Study of Rhodoliths: A Case Study for the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Cryptogamie, Algologie, 35 (1), 77-98. DOI

Frederiksen, R., Jensen, A. & Westerberg, H., 1992. The distribution of the Scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa around the Faroe Islands and the relation to internal tidal mixing. Sarsia, 77, 157-171.

Fredersdorf, J., Müller, R., Becker, S., Wiencke, C. & Bischof, K., 2009. Interactive effects of radiation, temperature and salinity on different life history stages of the Arctic kelp Alaria esculenta (Phaeophyceae). Oecologia, 160 (3), 483-492.

Fredette, T.J. & Diaz, R.J., van Montfrans, J., Orth, R.J., 1990. Secondary production within a seagrass bed (Zostera marina and Ruppia maritima) in lower Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries, 13, 431-440.

Fredriksen, S., Sjøtun, K., Lein, T.E. & Rueness, J., 1995. Spore dispersal in Laminaria hyperborea (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Sarsia, 80 (1), 47-53.

Fredriksen, S., Bartsch, I. & Wiencke, C., 2014. New additions to the benthic marine flora of Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard, and comparison between 1996/1998 and 2012/2013. Botanica Marina, 57 (3), 203-216.

Fredriksen, S., Christie, H. & Andre Sæthre, B., 2005. Species richness in macroalgae and macrofauna assemblages on Fucus serratus L.(Phaeophyceae) and Zostera marina L.(Angiospermae) in Skagerrak, Norway. Marine Biology Research, 1 (1), 2-19.

Fredriksen, S., Sjøtun, K., Lein, T.E. & Rueness, J., 1995. Spore dispersal in Laminaria hyperborea (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Sarsia, 80 (1), 47-53.

Freeman, S., Richardson, C.A. & Seed, R. (2001). Seasonal Abundance, Spatial Distribution, Spawning and Growth of Astropecten irregularis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 53(1): 39-49.

Freese, J.L., 2001. Trawl-induced damage to sponges observed from a research submersible. Marine Fisheries Review, 63 (3), 7-13.

Freese, L., Auster, P.J., Heifetz, J. & Wing, B.L., 1999. Effects of trawling on seafloor habitat and associated invertebrate taxa in the Gulf of Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 182, 119-126.

Freire, J., 1996. Feeding ecology of Liocarcinus depurator (Decapoda: Portunidae) in the Ría de Arousa (Galicia, north-west Spain): effects of habitat, season and life history. Marine Biology, 126, 297-311.

Freire, J., Sampedro, M.P. & Gonzalez-Gurriaran, E., 1996. Influence of morphometry and biomechanics on diet selection in three portunid crabs Marine Ecology Progress Series , 137, 111-121.

Freire-Santos, F., Oteiza-Lopez, A.M., Vergara-Castablanco, C.A., Ares-Mazas, E., Alvarez-Suarez, E. & Garcia-Martin, O., 2000. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in bivalve molluscs destined for human consumption. Journal of Parasitology, 86, 853-854.

Freitas, R., Almeida, A., Calisto, V., Velez, C., Moreira, A., Schneider, R. J., Esteves, V.I., Wrona, F.J., Figueira, E. & Soares, A., 2016. The impacts of pharmaceutical drugs under ocean acidification: New data on single and combined long-term effects of carbamazepine on Scrobicularia plana. Science of the Total Environment, 541, 977-985. DOI

Freitas, R., Almeida, A., Calisto, V., Velez, C., Moreira, A., Schneider, R.J., Esteves, V.I., Wrona, F.J., Soares, A. & Figueira, E., 2015b. How life history influences the responses of the clam Scrobicularia plana to the combined impacts of carbamazepine and pH decrease. Environmental Pollution, 202, 205-214. DOI

Freitas, R., Almeida, A., Pires, A., Velez, C., Calisto, V., Schneider, R.J., Esteves, V. I., Wrona, F.J., Figueira, E. & Soares, A., 2015. The effects of carbamazepine on macroinvertebrate species: Comparing bivalves and polychaetes biochemical responses. Water Research, 85, 137-147. DOI

Freitas, R., de Marchi, L., Moreira, A., Pestana, J.L.T., Wrona, F.J., Figueira, E. & Soares, A., 2017. Physiological and biochemical impacts induced by mercury pollution and seawater acidification in Hediste diversicolor. Science of the Total Environment, 595, 691-701. DOI

Freiwald, A., 2002. Tiefwasser-Riffe [On-line]., 2002-07-04

Freiwald, A., 1998. Geobiology of Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) reefs in the North Atlantic. , Habilitation Thesis. Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universität Bremen, Bremen, 116 pp.

Freiwald, A., Beuck, L., Rüggeberg, A., Taviani, M., Hebbeln, 2009. The white coral community in the central Mediterranean Sea revealed by ROV surveys. Oceanography, 22 (1), 58-74. DOI

Freiwald, A., Fosså, J.H., Grehan, A., Koslow, T. & Roberts, J.M., 2004. Cold-water coral reefs. Out of sight - no longer out of mind. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK, 84 pp. Available from

Freiwald, A., Henrich, R. & Pätzold, J., 1997. Anatomy of a deep-water coral reef mound from Stjernsund, West Finmark, North Norway. In Cool-water carbonates (ed. N.P. James & J.A.O., Clarke), pp. 141-162. [Society for Sedimentary Geology, Special Volume, no. 56.]

French, M., Evans, L.,1986. Fouling on paints containing copper and zinc. Algal Biofouling. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 79-100.

Fretter, V. & Graham, A., 1994. British prosobranch molluscs: their functional anatomy and ecology, revised and updated edition. London: The Ray Society.

Fretter, V. & Graham, A., 1964. Reproduction. In Physiology of Mollusca, vol. 1, (ed. K.M. Wilbur & C.M. Yonge). New York: Academic Press.

Fretter, V. & Graham, A., 1962. British Prosobranch Molluscs. London: Ray Society.

Fretter, V. & Graham, A., 1981. The Prosobranch Molluscs of Britain and Denmark. Part 6. Molluscs of Britain and Denmark. Part 6. Journal of Molluscan Studies, Supplement 9, 309-313.

Fretter, V. & Graham, A., 1977. The Prosobranch Molluscs of Britain and Ireland Part 2 –.Trochacea. Journal of Molluscan Studies, Supplement 3, 1-64.

Fretter, V. & Graham, A., 1985. The Prosobranch Molluscs of Britain and Denmark. Part 8. Neogastropods. Journal of Molluscan Studies. Supplement 15.

Fretter, V. & Manly, R., 1977. Algal associations of Triclia pullus, Lacuna vincta & Cerithiopsis tuberculosis (Gastropoda) with special reference to the settlement of their larvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 999-1017.

Fretter, V., 1941. The genital ducts of some British stenoglossan prosobranchs. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 25, 173-211.

Fretter, V., 1951. Observations on the life history and functional morphology of Cerithiopsis tubercularis (Montagu) and Triphora perversa (L.). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 29, 567-586.

Fretter, V., & Graham, A., 1978. The Prosobranch Molluscs of Britain and Denmark. Part 3. Journal of Molluscan Studies, Supplement 5, 137.

Fretter, V., & Graham, A., 1976. The Prosobranch Molluscs of Britain and Denmark. Part 1. - Pleurotomariacea, Fissurellacea and Patellacea. Journal of Molluscan Studies, Supplement 1.

Frey, R.W., 2012. The Study of Trace Fossils: A Synthesis of Principles, Problems, and Procedures in Ichnology: Springer Science & Business Media

Freyhof, J. 2011. Salmo trutta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T19861A9050312. Downloaded on 09 February 2021.

Frid, C.L., Harwood, K.G., Hall, S.J. & Hall, J.A., 2000. Long-term changes in the benthic communities on North Sea fishing grounds. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57 (5), 1303.

Frid, C.L.J. & Fordham, E., 1994. The morphology of the sub-littoral gastropod Gibula cineraria (L) along a gradient of wave action. Ophelia40 (2), 135-146.

Frid, C.L.J., Clark, R.A. 2000. Long term changes in North Sea benthos: discerning the role of fisheries. In: Kaiser MJ and de Groot SJ ed(s). Effects of fishing on non-target species and habitats. Oxford, Blackwells Scientific.

Frid, C.L.J., Clark, R.A. & Hall, J.A., 1999. Long-term changes in the benthos on a heavily fished ground off the NE coast of England. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 188, 13-20.

Frieder, C., Nam, S., Martz, T. & Levin, L., 2012. High temporal and spatial variability of dissolved oxygen and pH in a nearshore California kelp forest. Biogeosciences, 9 (10), 3917-3930.

Friedlander, B.R., Gochfeld, M., Burger, J., Vyas, V. & Powers, C.W., 2005. Additional Comparative Levels of Radionuclides in Marine Biota. In Biological and Geophysical Aspects of Potential Radionuclide Exposure in the Amchitka Marine Environment. Amchitka Independent Science Assessment, (eds. C.W. Powers, J. Burger, D. Kosson, M. Gochfeld and D. Barnes)

Fries, L., 1988. Ascophyllum nodosum (Phaeophyta) in Axenic culture and its response to the endophytic fungus Mycosphaerella ascophylli and epiphytic bacteria. Journal of Phycology, 24, 333-337.

Frimodt, C., 1995. Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, England.

Frithsen J.B., Oviatt, C.A. & Keller, A.A., 1987. A Comparison of Ecosystem and Single-species Tests of Sewage Toxicity: A Mesocosm Experiment Data Report. The University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, U.S.A., MERL series report No. 7, 187 pp.

Fritsch, F.E., 1945. Structure and reproduction of the algae. Volume II. Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae and Myxophyceae. Cambridge: University Press.

Fritzenwanker, J.H. & Technau, U., 2002. Induction of gametogenesis in the basal cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa). Development Genes and Evolution, 212, 99-103.

Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (ed.), 2019. Species summary for Salmo trutta, sea trout. Available from:

Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (ed.), 2000d. Species summary for Pomatoschistus microps, common goby., 2001-02-22

Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (ed.), 2000e. Species summary for Pomatoschistus minutus, sand goby., 2001-02-22

Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (ed.), 2000a. Species summary for Gobius cobitis, giant goby., 2001-02-22

Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (ed.), 2000b. Species summary for Gobius couchi, couch's goby., 2001-02-22

Froese, R. & Pauly, D., 2004. Fishbase. A global information system on fishes. [On-line], 2004-10-18

Froese, R. & Pauly, D., 2007. Fishbase. A global information system on fishes. [On-line], 2008-02-18

Froglife, 2018. Amphibian and reptile records for Great Britain in 2016. Occurrence dataset: accessed via on 2018-09-27.

Frölicher, T.L., Fischer, E.M. & Gruber, N., 2018. Marine heatwaves under global warming. Nature, 560 (7718), 360-364. DOI

Frometa, J., DeLorenzo, M.E., Pisarski, E.C. & Etnoyer, P.J., 2017. Toxicity of oil and dispersant on the deep water gorgonian octocoral Swiftia exserta, with implications for the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 122 (1-2), 91-99. DOI

Frometa, Janessy, DeLorenzo, Marie E., Pisarski, Emily C. & Etnoyer, Peter J., 2017. Toxicity of oil and dispersant on the deep water gorgonian octocoral Swiftia exserta, with implications for the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 122 (1), 91-99. DOI

FRS (Fisheries Research Services), 2003a. Scottish Nephrops stocks : West Coast [On-line], 2004-02-11

FRS (Fisheries Research Services), 2003b. Scottish Nephrops stocks: North Sea [On-line], 2004-02-11

Fryganiotis, K., Antoniadou, C. & Chintiroglou, C., 2013. Comparative distribution of the fan mussel Atrina fragilis (Bivalvia, Pinnidae) in protected and trawled areas of the north Aegean Sea (Thermaikos Gulf). Mediterranean Marine Science, 14 (1), 119-124. DOI

Fu, C., Mohn, R. & Fanning, L.P., 2001. Why the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stock off eastern Nova Scotia has not recovered. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 58, 1613-1623.

Fu, W., Wu, Y., Sun, L. & Zhang, W., 2007. Efficient bioremediation of total organic carbon (TOC) in integrated aquaculture system by marine sponge Hymeniacidon perleve. Biotechnology and bioengineering, 97 (6),1387-1397.

Fuentes, M., Schubert, M., Dalfo, D., Candiani, S., Benito, E., Gardenyes, J., Godoy, L., Moret, F., Illas, M., Patten, I., Permanyer, J., Oliveri, D., Boeuf, G., Falcon, J., Pestarino, M., Fernandez, J.G., Albalat, R., Laudet, V., Vernier, P. & Escriva, H., 2004. Preliminary observations on the spawning conditions of the European amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) in captivity. Journal of Experimental Zoology, Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 302B (4), 384-391.

Fujii, T. & Raffaelli, D., 2008. Sea-level rise, expected environmental changes, and responses of intertidal benthic macrofauna in the Humber estuary, UK. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 371, 23-35. DOI

Fujii, T., 2012. Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe. Biology and Environment. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section B,, 1, 597-616. DOI

Fujita, T. & Ohta, S., 1988. Photographic observations of the lifestyle of deep-sea ophiuroid Asteronynx loveni (Echinodermata). Deep Sea Research, 35, 2029-2043.

Fujita, T. & Ohta, S., 1989. Spatial structure with a dense bed of the brittlestar Ophiura sarsi (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) in the bathyal zone off Otsuchi, Northeastern Japan. Journal of the Oceanographical Society of Japan, 45, 289-300. 

Fujita, T. & Ohta, S., 1990. Size structure of dense populations of the brittle star Ophiura sarsii (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) in the bathyal zone around Japan. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 64, 113-122. 

Fuller, R.J., 1982. Bird habitats in Britain. Calton, Staffordshire: T. & A.D. Poyser.

Fulton, C., 1961. The development of Cordylophora. In The biology of Hydra and some other coelenterates (ed. H.M. Lenholf & W.F. Loomis), pp. 287-295. Miami Florida: University of Miami Press.

Fulton, C., 1962. Environmental factors influencing the growth of Cordylophora. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 151, 61-78.

Furch, K., 1972. The influence of pretreatment with constant and fluctuating temperatures on the heat resistance of Gammarus salinus and Idotea balthica. Marine Biology, 15, 12-34.

Furness, R.W., Greenstreet, S.P.R. & Walsh, P.M., 1996. Spatial and temporal variability in the breeding success of seabirds around the British Isles: evidence for distinct sandeel stocks? ICES Cooperative Research Report, 216, 63-65.